| | | |
 

last update 29 August 2013 | version 2.6.2

 

Database


 

Taxonomic Expertise

Browse groups

Taxonomic Group: Lepidoptera

Group Coordinator: Ole Karsholt & Erik van Nieukerken

 

Micropterigidae
Ole Karsholt

The Micropterygidae form the most basic clade within the Lepidoptera. There are 121 described species (Kristensen, 1999), 45 of which have been found in Europe. All European taxa are currently referred to the genus Micropterix. The European Micropterigidae are diurnal. The adults eat pollen in flowers of both lower plants and trees. The larvae eat green angiosperm leaves.
The European Micropterigidae have not yet been revised. Heath (1987) published a checklist of the genus Micropterix, Kozlov (1989, 1990) published a key to the Palaearctic Micropterix, and Whitebread (1992) gave a detailed account of the species occurring in Switzerland.

References
Heath, J., 1987. A check list of the genus Micropterix Hübner, [1825] (Lepidoptera: Zeugloptera, Micropterigidae). - Entomologist´s Gazette 38: 205-207.
Kozlov, M. V., 1989. Short review and key for determination of Micropterix Hbn. (Lepidoptera, Micropterigidae) species of the Palaearctic. 2. Key for determination [pt 1]. - Vestnik Zoologii 1989 (6): 26-31 [In Russian].
Kristensen, N. P., 1999. The Non-Glossatan Moths. - In: Kristensen, N.P. (ed.), Lepidoptera, Moths and Butterflies, 1: Evolution, Systematics, and Biogeography. Handbuch der Zoologie 4 (35): 41-49. Walter de Gruyter. Berlin, New York.
Whitebread, S., 1992. The Micropterigidae of Switzerland, with a key to their identification (Lepidoptera). - Nota lepidopterologica, Supplement 4: 129-143.

 

Eriocraniidae
Ole Karsholt

The Eriocraniidae is a small family of 24 described species, distributed in the Holarctic region (Kristensen, 1999), nine of which are found in Europe. The moths are mainly diurnal, flying during spring around their host trees, which in Europe belong to the Betulaceae and Fagaceae. The larvae are leaf miners.
There is much confusion and many misidentifications can be found in the current literature. However, a recent treatment of the German fauna (Sutter, 2000) can be recommended for identification.
Systematics and nomenclature in Eriocraniidae follow Karsholt et al. (in prep.).

References
Kristensen, N. P., 1999. The homoneurous Glossata. - In: Kristensen, N.P. (ed.), Lepidoptera, Moths and Butterflies, 1: Evolution, Systematics, and Biogeography. Handbuch der Zoologie 4 (35): 51-63. Walter de Gruyter. Berlin, New York.
Sutter, R., 2000. Beiträge zur Insektenfauna Ostdeutschlands: Lepidoptera - Eriocraniidae (Insecta). - Faunistische Abhandlungen Staatliches Museum für Naturkunde Dredsden 22: 49-67.

 

Acanthopteroctetidae
Ole Karsholt

The Acanthopteroctetidae is a very small family with a handful of species in the New World, and a single species confined to the Crimea, Ukraine (Zagulajev & Sinev, 1988).

References
Zagulajev, A. K. & Sinev, S. Yu., 1988. Catapterigidae fam. n. - a new family of lower Lepidoptera (Lepidoptera, Dacnonympha). - Entomologicheskoe Obozrenie 67: 593-601. [In Russian].

 

Hepialidae
Ole Karsholt & Erik J. van Nieukerken

The Hepialidae (sensu lato) comprise 587 species worldwide, catalogued by Nielsen et al. (2000). In Europe only 17 species are found. The Hepialidae or Ghost moths are relatively large moths, the European species vary from 3-8 cm wingspan, but there are much larger tropical representatives. They are homoneuran moths: hindwings with venation similar to forewings and frenulum absent. The proboscis is short an non-functional. Catterpillars are large, boring in roots or living in the soil, usually polyphagous. Some species are considered as pests. The moths fly during a short period at dusk and rarely come at light.
A few genera, including the European Gazorycta, do not belong to the monophyletic core Hepialidae and may eventually have to be removed to new families (Kristensen 1999, Nielsen et al. 2000). Phylogenetically, the Hepialoidea form, together with the Mnesarchaeoidea of New Zealand, the clade 'Exoporia', recognized by the unique female genitalia, which have two openings: the copulatory orifice and an ovipore. This is in parallel with the Ditrysia, where this condition apparently has evolved again.
European species can be identified with de Freina & Witt (1990).
The taxonomy and nomenclature used follow Nielsen et al. (2000); for distribution also de Freina & Witt (1990) was used.

References
Freina, J. J. de & Witt, T. J., 1990. Die Bombyces und Sphinges der Westpalaearktis (Insecta, Lepidoptera), 2. - Forschung & Wissenschaft, München, 140 pp.
Kristensen, N. P., 1999. The homoneurous Glossata. - In: Kristensen, N.P. (ed.), Lepidoptera, Moths and Butterflies, 1: Evolution, Systematics, and Biogeography. Handbuch der Zoologie 4 (35): 51-63. Walter de Gruyter. Berlin, New York.
Nielsen, E. S., Robinson, G. S. & Wagner, D. L., 2000. Ghost-moths of the world: a global inventory and bibliography of the Exoporia (Mnesarchaeoidea and Hepialoidea) (Lepidoptera). - Journal of Natural History 34: 823-878.

 

Nepticulidae
Erik J. van Nieukerken

The Nepticulidae are a relatively large family, with to data about 800 named species and many more to discover (see global catalogue Diškus & Puplesis, 2003). The moths are amongst the smallest known, from less than 2 mm wingspan to almost 10 mm. They are characterized by an enlarged scape (eye-cap), vertex with piliform scales, usually a very short but functional proboscis and reduced venation. The antennae bear a unique sensillum type: the sensillum vesiculocladum. The larvae are usually leafminers, a few mine stems or bark or the fruits of Acer. The majority feeds on trees and shrubs, but a few feed on herbs. Only one species is regularly regarded as a pest: Stigmella malella, causing diminished yield of apples as a result of early leaf fall.
We list 242 named species from the Fauna Europaea region, but around 40 unnamed species from southern Europe are already recognized in collections, particularly in Trifurcula and Parafomoria.
Taxonomy and nomenclature of Nepticulidae follow van Nieukerken (1986a and b) and partial updates by Johansson et al. (1990), Puplesis (1994), van Nieukerken (1996), A. & Z. Laštuvka (1997) and Z. & A. Laštuvka (1998).
Nepticulidae occurring north of the Alps can well be identified with Johansson et al. (1990) and A. & Z. Laštuvka (1997), but for southern Europe no complete treatment is yet available. Revisions of some genera or species groups were given by van Nieukerken (1983, 1985, 1990a), van Nieukerken & Johansson (2003) and A. & Z. Laštuvka (2000a, b).

 

Faunistics
Many records in the literature are rather based on mines (tenanted or vacated) than on adults. In many cases such records are even more reliable, particularly before the genitalia became commonly in use for the identification (19th century records). However, some groups of species are notoriously difficult to separate on their mines, and such records should be treated with care, or rejected altogether. A problem is that many sources do not state whether only vacated mines have been seen, or that material has been reared. In such cases we have for the time being accepted the records. Some modern authors reject the use of records on the basis of mines completely, but many mine records are perfectly valid and trustworthy. By rejection of all these records, we would lose a lot of information on the distribution of many species. Vouchers should of course also be kept of mine records. Groups which are difficult or not to separate on the mines are: most feeders on herbs or shrubs of Rosaceae, particularly in Stigmella (hosts: Rubus, Rosa, Sanguisorba, Potentilla), Stigmella on Quercus (except S. basiguttella); some Ulmus feeders, some Salix feeders.
Extra sources used for faunistics, apart from the listed handbooks or revisions: for Bosnia: Dimic (1968), Skala (1936, 1937); Bulgaria: Trentchev & Tomov (1996); Spain and Portugal: Van Nieukerken et al. (2004b); Croatia, Slovenia and Servia-Montenegro: A. & Z. Laštuvka (1997); Greece: Z. & A. Laštuvka (1998); Lithuania: Diškus (2003); Moldova: Hering (1932); Russia (several parts): Kozlov (1996), Krulikowsky (1908), Van Nieukerken et al. (2004a), Puplesis (1994), Shmytova (2002), Skala (1944); Ukraine: Bidzilya et al. (2001), Hormuzaki (1907, 1910), Kozlov & Koricheva (1990, 1991), A. & Z. Laštuvka (1997), Puplesis (1994) and Toll (1938).

References
Bidzilya, A. V., Budashkin, Y. I. , Zhakov, A. V., Klyuchko, Z. F. & Kostyuk, I. Y., 2001. Fauna cheshuekrylykh (Lepidoptera) zapovednika "Kamennye Mogily" i ee taksonomicheskaya struktura. [The Lepidoptera fauna of the nature reserve "Kamennye Mogily" and its taxonomic composition]. - In: A. L. Morozova & V. F. Gnyubkin (Eds.), Karadag. Istoriya, biologiya, arkheologiya (sbornik nauchnykh trudov, povyachshennyj 85-letiyu Karadagskoj biologicheskoj stancii im. T. I. Vyazemskogo). (Karadag. History, biology, archeology (The scientific works dedicated to 85th anniversary of T. L. Vyasemsky Karadag biological station): 72-107. SONAT, Simferopol.
Dimic, N., 1968. Neka zapazanja o lisnim moljcima minerima iz roda Stigmella (Fam.: Nepticulidae), kao Stetocinama jabuke na podrucju Bosne i Hercegovine. (Einige Bemerkungen über die Blattminiermotten der Gattung Stigmella (Fam.: Nepticulidae), als Apfelschädlinge im Bosnien und der Herzegowina). - Radovi Poljoprivrednog Fakulteta Univerziteta u Sarajevu 17 (19): 137-146.
Diškus, A., 2003. Revizuota Lietuvos Nepticulidae fauna. (Revised fauna of the Nepticulidae of Lithuania). - In: Puplesis, R. & A. Diškus, A. (Eds.), The Nepticuloidea & Tischerioidea (Lepidoptera) - a global review, with strategic regional revisions. 290-317. Lutute publishers, Kaunas.
Diškus, A. & Puplesis, R., 2003. Catalogue of the world Nepticuloidea & Tischerioidea. - In: Puplesis, R. & A. Diškus, A. (Eds.), The Nepticuloidea & Tischerioidea (Lepidoptera) - a global review, with strategic regional revisions: 318-436. Lutute publishers, Kaunas.
Hering, M., 1932. Die Minenfauna von Tighina (Bender) in Bessarabien. 2. Beitrag zur Kenntnis der Minenfauna von Gross-Rumänien. - Bulletin de la Section Scientifique de l'Académie Roumaine 15 (1/2): 1-22.
Hormuzaki, K. von, 1907. Die Schmetterlinge (Lepidoptera) der Bukowina. III. Teil: Familien Pyralidae bis Micropterygidae. - Verhandlungen der Zoologisch-Botanischen Gesellschaft in Wien 57: 34-104.
Hormuzaki, K. von, 1910. Nachtrag zur Mikrolepidopterenfauna der Bukowina. - Verhandlungen der Zoologisch-Botanischen Gesellschaft in Wien 60: 396-403.
Johansson, R., Nielsen, E. S., Nieukerken, E. J. van & Gustafsson, B., 1990. The Nepticulidae and Opostegidae (Lepidoptera) of north west Europe. - Fauna Entomologica Scandinavica 23 (1): 1-413; (2): 414-739.
Kozlov, M. V. & Koricheva, Y. G., 1990. Sravnitel'nyj analiz raspredeleniya min sovmestno obitayushchikh cheshuyekrylykh (Lepidoptera: Nepticulidae, Gracillariidae, Coleophoridae,Tischeriidae) po list'yam kormovykh rastenij. [The comparative analysis of the distribution of coexisting moths of families Nepticulidae, Gracillariidae, Coleophoridae and Tischeriidae (Lepidoptera) on the plant leaves]. - Vestnik Leningradskogo Universiteta Biologiya 2: 11-18.
Kozlov, M. V. & Koricheva, Y. G., 1991. The within-tree distribution of caterpillar mines. - In: Baranchjikov, Y. N., Mattson, W. J., Hain, F. P. & Payne, T. L. (Eds.), Forest insect guilds: pattern of interaction with host trees. NE-153: 240-254. U.S. Department of Agriculture and Forest Services General technical Report., Randor, PA.
Kozlov, M. V., 1996. Patterns of forest insect distribution within a large city: microlepidoptera in St Peterburg, Russia. - Journal of Biogeography 23 (1): 95-103.
Krulikowsky, L., 1908. Neues Verzeichnis der Lepidopteren des Gouvernements Kasan (östl. Russland). - Deutsche Entomologische Zeitschrift Iris 21: 202-285.
Laštuvka, A. & Laštuvka, Z., 1997. Nepticulidae Mitteleuropas. Ein illustrierter Begleiter (Lepidoptera). - Konvoj, Brno. 229 pp.
Laštuvka, A. & Laštuvka, Z., 2000a. Zwei neue Globularia minierende Trifurcula-Arten (Lepidoptera, Nepticulidae). - Acta Musei Moraviae, Scientiae biologicae 85: 289-296.
Laštuvka, A. & Laštuvka, Z., 2000b. The Ectoedemia (Fomoria) weaveri-group of the southern Balkans with a description of two new species (Lepidoptera, Nepticulidae). - Acta Universitatis Agriculturae et Silviculturae Mendelianae Brunensis 48 (3): 19-26.
Laštuvka, Z. & Laštuvka, A., 1998. Beitrag zur Kenntnis der Nepticulidenfauna Griechenlands (Lepidoptera, Nepticulidae). - Stapfia 55: 313-326.
Nieukerken, E. J. van, 1983. The Cistaceae-feeding Nepticulidae (Lepidoptera) of the western Palaearctic region. - Systematic Entomology 8 (4): 453-478.
Nieukerken, E. J. van, 1985. A taxonomic revision of the western Palaearctic species of the subgenera Zimmermannia Hering and Ectoedemia Busck s. str. (Lepidoptera, Nepticulidae), with notes on their phylogeny. - Tijdschrift voor Entomologie 128 (1): 1-164.
Nieukerken, E. J. van, 1986a. Systematics and phylogeny of Holarctic genera of Nepticulidae (Lepidoptera, Heteroneura: Monotrysia). - Zoologische Verhandelingen 236: 1-93.
Nieukerken, E. J. van, 1986b. A provisional phylogenetic check-list of the western Palaearctic Nepticulidae, with data on hostplants (Lepidoptera). - Entomologica Scandinavica 17 (1): 1-27.
Nieukerken, E. J. van, 1990a. The Trifurcula subnitidella group (Lepidoptera: Nepticulidae): taxonomy, distribution and biology. - Tijdschrift voor Entomologie 133 (2): 205-238.
Nieukerken, E. J. van, 1996. Nepticulidae, Opostegidae. - In: Karsholt, O. & Razowski, J. (Eds.), The Lepidoptera of Europe. A distributional checklist: 21-27, 300. Apollo Books, Stenstrup.
Nieukerken, E. J. van & Johansson, R., 2003. The Quercus feeding Stigmella species of the West Palaearctic: new species, key and distribution (Lepidoptera: Nepticulidae). - Tijdschrift voor Entomologie 146 (2): 307-370.
Nieukerken, E. J. van, V. V. Zolotuhin & A. Mistchenko, 2004a. Nepticulidae from the Volga and Ural region (Lepidoptera). - Nota Lepidopterologica (in press).
Nieukerken, E. J. van, A. Laštuvka & Z. Laštuvka, 2004b. Annotated catalogue of the Nepticulidae and Opostegidae (Lepidoptera: Nepticuloidea) of the Iberian Peninsula. - SHILAP Revista Lepidopterologica (in press).
Puplesis, R., 1994. The Nepticulidae of eastern Europe and Asia. Western, central and eastern parts. - Backhuys Publishers, Leiden. 1-290 pp.
Shmytova, I. V., 2002. Pervoe soobshchenie o molyakh-malyutkakh (Lepidopter: Nepticulidae) Kaluzhskoj oblasti. (The first report about nepticulids (Lepidoptera: Nepticulidae) of the Kaluga Area). - Russian Entomological Journal 11 (3): 311-312.
Skala, H., 1936. Minen aus Mittel- und Südeuropa. - Zeitschrift des Österreichischen Entomologen-Vereins 21: 78-79.
Skala, H., 1937. Minen aus Mittel- und Südeuropa. - Zeitschrift des Österreichischen Entomologen-Vereins 22: 10-11, 19-20.
Skala, H., 1944. Minen aus Westrussland. - Zeitschrift der Wiener Entomologischen Gesellschaft 29: 150-152.
Toll, S., 1938. Microlepidoptera zebrane w latach 1934-1937 w powiatach zaleszczyckim i borszczowskim na Podolu. (Verzeichnis der in den Jahren 1934-1937 in den Kreisen Zaleszczyki und Borszczów (Podolien) aufgefundenen Mikrolepidopteren). - Sprawozdania Komisji Fizyograficznej oraz Materyaly do Fizyografii Kraju. Kraków 73: 133-221.
Trentchev, G. & Tomov, R., 1996. Minirashchy molshi (Lepidoptera, Nepticulidae) ustanoveny y suobshcheny za faunata na Bulgariya ot nachi i cuzhdy avtory do 1995 g. [Mining moths (Lepidoptera, Nepticulidae) established and reported for the fauna in Bulgaria by our and foreign authors till 1995]. - Nauka za Gorata 33 (2): 74-79.

 

Opostegidae
Erik J. van Nieukerken

The Opostegidae form a relatively small family, with 123 named species worldwide, and only six species known from Europe. The moths are small, ca. 4-16 mm wingspan, and are usually predominantly white, sometimes with darker bands or patches. They have an enlarged scape (eye-cap), the frenulum is absent and the antennae bear a specialised sensillum type: the ascoid sensilla.
Taxonomy and nomenclature of these follow van Nieukerken (1996). Biology of these moths is poorly known, the European species are not leafmining, as are some outside Europe, but mine or tunnel in stems or bark of Rumex, Mentha, Lycopus and Salix (Opostega spatulella, the mines beautifully illustrated by Puplesis & Diškus 2003) and probably other hosts (the record of Caltha is an persisting mistake in the literature: P. auritella does not feed on it, but on Lycopus). The four northern European species can be identified with van Nieukerken (1990). The southern European Opostegoides menthinella (Mann) and Pseudopostega chalcopepla (Walsingham) can be identified with Van Nieukerken et al. (2004b). Diškus & Puplesis (2003) provide a catalogue of all species.

References
Diškus, A. & Puplesis, R., 2003. Catalogue of the world Nepticuloidea & Tischerioidea. - In: Puplesis, R. & A. Diškus, A. (Eds.), The Nepticuloidea & Tischerioidea (Lepidoptera) - a global review, with strategic regional revisions: 318-436. Lutute publishers, Kaunas.
Nieukerken, E. J. van, 1990b. Opostegidae. - In: Johansson, R., Nielsen, E. S., Nieukerken, E. J. van & Gustafsson, B. (Eds.), The Nepticulidae and Opostegidae (Lepidoptera) of NW Europe. Fauna Entomologica Scandinavica 23: 357-372, pls.
Nieukerken, E. J. van, 1996. Nepticulidae, Opostegidae. - In: Karsholt, O. & Razowski, J. (Eds.), The Lepidoptera of Europe. A distributional checklist: 21-27, 300. Apollo Books, Stenstrup.
Nieukerken, E. J. van, A. Laštuvka & Z. Laštuvka, 2004b. Annotated catalogue of the Nepticulidae and Opostegidae (Lepidoptera: Nepticuloidea) of the Iberian Peninsula. - SHILAP Revista Lepidopterologica (in press).
Puplesis, R. & A. Diškus, A., 2003. The Nepticuloidea & Tischerioidea (Lepidoptera) - a global review, with strategic regional revisions. - Lutute publishers, Kaunas. 512 pp.

 

Heliozelidae
Erik J. van Nieukerken

About 100 species of Heliozelidae are known, but only eight are known from Europe. Heliozelidae are very small moths (3-15 mm wingspan), often with metallic markings, and larvae making leafmines. The larva cuts out a hole from the leaf and pupates inside the oval case. The European species feed on Betulaceae, Fagaceae, Polygonaceae, Cornaceae and Vitaceae. The south-European Holocacista rivillei can be a pest on Wine.
The Heliozelidae are regarded as the sister-group of all other Incurvarioidea.
The northern European species can be identified with Wojtusiak (1976) and Emmet (1976).

References
Emmet, A. M., 1976. Heliozelidae. - In: Heath, J. (Ed.), The moths and butterflies of Great Britain and Ireland, 1. Micropterigidae - Heliozelidae. The moths and butterflies of Great Britain and Ireland 1: 300-306, illustr. Blackwell Scientific Publications Ltd, Oxford & London.
Wojtusiak, J., 1976. Heliozelidae. - Klucze do Oznaczania Owadow Polski 27 (7): 1-18.

 

Adelidae
Erik J. van Nieukerken & Mikhail Kozlov

There are about 300 named species of Fairy moths or Long-horned moths, but alone in Nemophora about 150 unnamed species await description. In Europe 51 species are recorded.
The Adelidae can easily be recognized by the very long antennae, especially in the male, where they can reach up to three times the forewing length. The moths are small, wingspan of 8-25 mm, eyes of males in some genera enlarged. Moths usually with metallic colours and flying in daytime. In several species, the males show swarming behaviour. The larvae live in oval cases, usually on the forest floor in detritus, but some are specialised on their host plant, at least during the early instars. Hostplants often herbs, e.g. Brassicaceae, Dipsacaceae, Clusiaceae, Gentianaceae, but many are more or less polyphagous. The life history of many species is still poorly known.
The generic phylogeny was discussed by Nielsen (1980). The taxonomy of the European species is still imperfectly known, except for the genus Nematopogon, which was completely treated by Nielsen (1985). The revision of the other genera (collectively treated as Adela) by Küppers (1980) contains many errors and is difficult to use as identification source. Kozlov (2004) provided the basis for the nomenclature and taxonomy of Nemophora, and Nielsen & Johansson (1980) for Cauchas.
Sources we used for the faunistics, next to the country checklists are Bland (1986), Küppers (1980) and Nielsen (1985).

References
Bland, K. P., 1986. Preliminary atlas of the Lepidoptera: Incurvarioidea of the British Isles. - Biological Records Centre, Huntingdon.
Kozlov, M. V., 2004. Annotated checklist of the European species of Nemophora Hoffmannsegg (Adelidae). - Nota Lepidopterologica 26: 115-126.
Küppers, P. V., 1980. Untersuchungen zur Taxonomie und Phylogenie der Westpaläarktischen Adelinae (Lepidoptera: Adelidae). - Karlsruhe, M. Wahl. 497 pp.
Nielsen, E. S., 1980. A cladistic analysis of the Holarctic genera of adelid moths (Lepidoptera: Incurvaroidea). - Entomologica Scandinavica 11 (2): 161-178.
Nielsen, E. S., 1985. A taxonomic review of the adelid genus Nematopogon Zeller (Lepidoptera: Incurvarioidea). - Entomologica Scandinavica. Supplementum 25: 1-66.
Nielsen, E. S. & Johansson, R., 1980. Cauchas breviantennella n. sp. from N.W. Europe and C. brunnella n. sp. from Uzbekistan, with a checklist of the Palaearctic Cauchas species (Lepidoptera: Adelidae). - Entomologica Scandinavica 11 (2): 145-153.

 

Prodoxidae
Erik J. van Nieukerken & Mikhail Kozlov

A small family with about 80 species, of which 19 or 20 species, all in Lampronia, are recorded from Europe.
Small moths (9-35 mm wingspan), externally hardly separable from Incurvariidae or Tineidae.
Larvae endophagous in plant shoots, fruits, buds, etc. In Europe on hosts as Betulaceae, Rosaceae, Saxifragaceae. Lampronia capitella has been reported as pest on Ribes species. The North American subfamily Prodoxinae is well known for the intimate association with the hosts of some species: Yucca.
The genus Lampronia is badly in need of a taxonomic revision. As source next to country checklists we use Bland (1986).

References
Bland, K. P., 1986. Preliminary atlas of the Lepidoptera: Incurvarioidea of the British Isles. - Biological Records Centre, Huntingdon.

 

Incurvariidae
Erik J. van Nieukerken & Mikhail Kozlov

Another small family with about 100 species, with only 13 recorded in Europe.
Small moths (9-20 mm wingspan), externally hardly separable from Prodoxidae or Tineidae.
Larvae usually starting as leafminers, later dropping to the ground in an oval case and feeding on leaflitter, or continuing to feed externally on the host. Hostplants include Betulaceae, Rosaceae, Saxifragaceae, Ericaceae and Aceraceae in Europe.
For identification a combination of sources is needed: Heath & Pelham Clinton (1976), Laasonen et al. (1981), Huemer (1993) and Wojtusiak (1976).

References
Heath, J. & Pelham Clinton, E. C., 1976. Incurvariidae. - In: Heath, J., (Ed.), The moths and butterflies of Great Britain and Ireland, 1. Micropterigidae - Heliozelidae. The moths and butterflies of Great Britain and Ireland 1: 277-300. Blackwell Scientific Publications Ltd, Oxford & London.
Huemer, P., 1993. Review of the Incurvaria vetulella species-group in the Alps (Lepidoptera: Incurvariidae). - Entomologica Scandinavica 24 (1): 109-120.
Laasonen, E., Jalava, J. & Nielsen, E. S., 1981. The identity of Incurvaria vetulella (Zetterstedt, 1839) and I. circulella (Zetterstedt, 1839), two distinct species (Lepidoptera: Incurvariidae). - Entomologica Scandinavica 12 (1): 57-64.
Wojtusiak, J., 1976. Incurvariidae. - Klucze do Oznaczania Owadow Polski 27 (8): 19-60.

 

Crinopterygidae
Erik J. van Nieukerken

The single species Crinopteryx familiariella occurs only in Southwestern Europe, where the larvae feed in cases on several Cistaceae. It was redescribed by Petersen (1978).

Reference
Petersen, G., 1978. Zur systematischen Stellung der Gattung Crinopteryx Peyerimhoff, 1871 (Lepidoptera: Incurvariidae). - Beiträge zur Entomologie (Berlin) 28 (2): 217-220.

 

Tischeriidae
Ole Karsholt & Erik J. van Nieukerken

A small family, worldwide with 101 named species, but in Europe and the Canary Islands with 12 species only. The family was recently revised (Puplesis & Diškus, 2003), resulting in the division of the old genus Tischeria in three genera, of which Coptotriche Walsingham is the correct name for the genus until recently known in Europe as Emmetia Leraut.
The moths are small, up to about 15 mm wingspan, and characterized by ciliate antennae in male, a frontal tuft which projects over a smoothly scaled face and a modified pecten on scapus. Larvae are leafminers, and make whitish mines, usually devoid of frass, which is ejected by the caterpillar. In Europe only feeding on Fagaceae (Quercus) and Rosaceae, but elsewhere also on Asteraceae, Rhamnaceae and several other families.
Diškus & Puplesis (2003) provide a catalogue to all species.

References
Diškus, A. & Puplesis, R., 2003. Catalogue of the world Nepticuloidea & Tischerioidea. - In: Puplesis, R. & A. Diškus, A. (Eds.), The Nepticuloidea & Tischerioidea (Lepidoptera) - a global review, with strategic regional revisions: 318-436. Lutute publishers, Kaunas.
Puplesis, R. & A. Diškus, A., 2003. The Nepticuloidea & Tischerioidea (Lepidoptera) - a global review, with strategic regional revisions. - Lutute publishers, Kaunas. 512 pp.

 

Tineidae
R. Gaedike

Small to medium sized moths. Globally ca 3000 species in 320 genera. Larvae fungivorous or detritophagous, some are pests.
There is a Global taxonomic database of Tineidae (Lepidoptera) by Gaden S. Robinson (http://www.nhm.ac.uk/entomology/tineidae/) .

 

Eriocottidae
Ole Karsholt

The Eriocottidae is a small family with less than 100 described species, divided into two subfamilies Eriocottinae and Compsocteninae (Davis & Robinson, 1999), of which only the former occurs in Europe. The few European species are placed in two genera, Eriocottis and Deuterotinea. The latter has brachypterous females. Zagulajev (1988) gave a detailed account of the Eriocottidae occurring especially in the former Soviet-Union, but the family is still imperfectly known.

References
Davis, D. R. & Robinson, G., 1999. The Tineoidea and Gracillarioidea.. - In: Kristensen, N.P. (ed.), Lepidoptera, Moths and Butterflies, 1: Evolution, Systematics, and Biogeography. Handbuch der Zoologie 4 (35): 91-117. Walter de Gruyter. Berlin, New York.
Zagulajev, A. K., 1988. Grass stem moths, families Ochsenheimeriidae and Eriocottidae. Lepidoptera. - Fauna SSSR 135: 1-301. [In Russian].

 

Lypusidae
Ole Karsholt

The Lypusidae forms a monobasic family, which has been excluded from the Psychidae. The larva feeds on Empetrum, and possibly other plants, from a case made from a leaf (P. Falck, pers. comm.). Adults of both sexes have normally developed wings.

 

Psychidae
W. Arnschied

Small to medium sized moths, males fully winged, females either winged, or more often reduced brachypterous, apterous or vermiform and never leeving the larval case. All larvae make cases and feed on a broad range of hostplants (incl. lichens, grasses, trees), usually polyphagous. Ca 1000 species known.

 

Roeslerstammiidae
Ole Karsholt

The Roeslerstammiidae is a small family with about 40 described species in 10 genera (Davis & Robinson, 1999). The two species occurring in Europe were recently discussed by Huemer & Segerer (2001).

References
Davis, D. R. & Robinson, G., 1999. The Tineoidea and Gracillarioidea.. - In: Kristensen, N.P. (ed.), Lepidoptera, Moths and Butterflies, 1: Evolution, Systematics, and Biogeography. Handbuch der Zoologie 4 (35): 91-117. Walter de Gruyter. Berlin, New York.
Huemer, P. & Segerer, A. H., 2001. Polyphänismus bei "Kleinschmetterlingen" am Beispiel von Roeslerstammia erxlebella (Fabricius, 1787) und R. pronubella ([Denis & Schiffermüller], 1775) (Lepidoptera: Roeslerstammiidae). - Entomologische Zeitschrift 111: 207-211.

 

Douglasiidae
R. Gaedike

A small family with 25 known species, most in Palaearctic.

 

Bucculatricidae
Wolfram Mey

The European species of the family are not revised yet. Many species are poorly known, and their specific status is uncertain. Undoubtedly, some names will turn out to be synonyms. This applies especially for the Mediterranean species whose ranges are rather obscure. The list contains all nominal species names which are currently regarded as representing true species. The distribution data are primarily extracted from the faunistic literature. In addition, a few unpublished records of species have been incorporated which are based on specimens found in some European collections.
Ca 250 species known world-wide, leafmining in early instars, on a number of hosts, often Asteraceae.

 

Gracillariidae
J. Buszko

Small moths, most species leafminers in at least part of their larval life. Ca. 2000 species known, a global catalogue is in preparation.

 

Yponomeutidae
David Agassiz

A family of over 700 species, of which 113 are recorded from Europe. The males are characterised by pleural lobes on the 8th segment. Authors differ about the status of species groups such as Argyresthiinae which are often given family status. The larvae of Yponomeutinae often spin webs in which they live gregariously, those of Argyresthia usually bore into shoots of the host tree.
Species of Yponomeuta, the small ermine moths, are sometimes of economic importance, defoliating and webbing trees. Argyresthia conjugella is a minor pest of fruit. They are well known in Europe, but there may be one or two undescribed spp. of Argyresthia. The genus Yponomeuta presents biological problems and has been much studied by e.g. Menken et al. (1992).
Identification guides include Gershenson & Ulenberg (1998), Moriuti (1977), Agassiz (1995), Friese (1960), Friese (1962), Friese (1969), Hannemann (1977) & Medvedev (1981/1990). Friese (1963 & 1964) give details of distribution in the Balkans.

References
Agassiz, D. J. L., 1995. Yponomeutidae. - In: Emmet, A.M. (ed.) The Moths and Butterflies of Great Britain and Ireland. 3. 39-114.
Friese, G., 1960. Revision der paläarktischen Yponomeutidae unter besonderer Berücksichtigung der Genitalien. - Beiträge zur Entomologie 10: 1-131.
Friese, G., 1962. Beiträge zur ostpaläarktischen Yponomeutidae (Lepidoptera). - Beiträge zur Entomologie 12: 299-331.
Friese, G., 1963. Ergebnisse der Albanien-Expedition 1961 des Deutschen Entomologischen Institutes 4. Lepidopera: Yponomeutiade. - Beiträge zur Entomologie 13: 20-25.
Friese, G., 1964. Zoologishe Ergebnisse der Mazedonienreisen Friedrich Kasys 4. Lepidoptera: Argyresthiidae. - Sitzungsberichte der österreichischen Akademie der Wissenschaften. Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Klasse. 172: 403-412.
Friese, G., 1966. Ergebnisse der Albanien-Expedition 1961 des Deutschen Entomologischen Institutes 52. Lepidoptera: Plutellidae. - Beiträge zur Entomologie 16: 447-459.
Friese, G., 1969. Beiträge zur Insekten-Fauna der DDR: Lepdidoptera - Argyresthiidae. - Beiträge zur Entomologie 19: 693-752.
Gershenson, Z.S. & Ulenberg, S. A., 1998. The Yponomeutinae (Lepidoptera) of the World exclusive of the Americas. - Amsterdam.
Hannemann, H-J., 1977. Gespinsmotten (Yponomeutidae). - Die Tierwelt Deutschlands 63: 119-164.
Medvedev, G. S., (ed.), 1981 Opredelitel' Nasekomykh Evropeiskoi Chasti SSSR, 4, Cheshuekrylye, 2. - Leningrad.
Medvedev, G. S. (ed.), 1990. Keys to the Insects of the European Part of the USSR. IV part 2. Brill, Leiden. [Translation of Medvedev 1981]
Menken, S. B. J., Herebout, W. M. & Wiebes, J. T., 1992. Small ermine moths (Yponomeuta), their host relations and evolution. - Annual Review of Entomology 37: 41-66.
Moriuti, S. 1977. Fauna Japonica, Yponomeutidae s. lat. (Insecta: Lepidoptera). - Tokyo.

 

Ypsolophidae
David Agassiz & Ole Karsholt (Ochsenheimeriinae)

Over 120 species of Ypsolophinae, of which 36 are recorded from Europe. Characterised by the aedeagus with coecum. Larvae mostly feed in a loose web.
They are well known in Europe, but a further undescribed species occurs in the north. Identification guides include Agassiz (1995) and Medvedev (1981/90).

The Ochsenheimeriinae was in former time considered a family of its own, but is now treated as a subfamily of the Ypsolophidae. There are about 10 species, all occurring in the Palaearctic region (O. vacculella has been introduced to North America). The group has been considered taxonomically difficult, but that has partly been because several species, which are now considered as synonyms, were given status as distinct species. The present treatment reflects studies by Karsholt & Sutter (in prep.). The North and Central European species can be identified by using Karsholt & Nielsen (1984) and Sutter (1997). Zagulajev (1988) gave a detailed account of the Ochsenheimeriidae occurring especially in the former Sovjet Union, but recognized several taxa, which are here considered as synonyms.

References
Agassiz, D. J. L., 1995. Yponomeutidae. - In: Emmet, A.M. (ed.) The Moths and Butterflies of Great Britain and Ireland. 3. 39-114.
Karsholt, O. & Nielsen, E. S., 1984. A taxonomic review of the stem moths, Ochsenheimeria Hübner, of northern Europe (Lepidoptera: Ochsenheimeriidae). - Entomologica scandinavica 15: 233-247.
Medvedev, G. S., (ed.), 1981 Opredelitel' Nasekomykh Evropeiskoi Chasti SSSR, 4, Cheshuekrylye, 2. - Leningrad.
Medvedev, G. S. (ed.), 1990. Keys to the Insects of the European Part of the USSR. IV part 2. Brill, Leiden. [Translation of Medvedev 1981]
Sutter, R., 1997. Beiträge zur Insektenfauna Ostdeutschlands: Lepidoptera - Ochsenheimeriidae. - Beiträge zur Entomologie 47: 3-12.
Zagulajev, A. K., 1988. Grass stem moths, families Ochsenheimeriidae and Eriocottidae. Lepidoptera. - Fauna SSSR 135: 1-301. [In Russian].

 

Plutellidae
David Agassiz

Almost 200 species worldwide (although the taxonomic position of many is unresolved) of which 36 occur in Europe. Larvae feed on Cruciferae or Capparidaceae, adults often distinguished by the porrect palpi. Plutella xylostella is a major pest of cabbage throughout the world.
Well known in Europe, identification guides include Agassiz (1995) and Medvedev (1981/90). Balkan distribution given by Friese (1966).

References
Agassiz, D. J. L., 1995. Yponomeutidae. - In: Emmet, A.M. (ed.) The Moths and Butterflies of Great Britain and Ireland. 3. 39-114.
Friese, G., 1966. Ergebnisse der Albanien-Expedition 1961 des Deutschen Entomologischen Institutes 52. Lepidoptera: Plutellidae. - Beiträge zur Entomologie 16: 447-459.
Medvedev, G. S., (ed.), 1981 Opredelitel' Nasekomykh Evropeiskoi Chasti SSSR, 4, Cheshuekrylye, 2. - Leningrad.
Medvedev, G. S. (ed.), 1990. Keys to the Insects of the European Part of the USSR. IV part 2. Brill, Leiden. [Translation of Medvedev 1981]

 

Acrolepiidae
R. Gaedike

Often included in the Plutellidae. Ca 95 species known, larvae leafminers on Solanaceae, Asteraceae and Liliaceae.

 

Glyphipterigidae
David Agassiz

Over 300 species globally, of which 20 are recorded from Europe. Superficially species of the family are easily recognised by the distinctive wing pattern on a black background; structural distinctness less easily defined.
European species are well known. Identification guides include Diakonoff (1986), Pelham-Clinton (1985) and Medvedev (1981/90).

References
Diakonoff, A., 1986. Glyphipterigidae auctorum sensu lato (Glyphipterygidae sensu Meyrick, 1913), containing: Tortricidae: Hilarographini, Choreutidae, Brachodidae (partim), Immidae and Glyphipterigidae. - In: Amsel, H. G., Gregor, F., Reisser, H. & Roesler, R.-U., Microlepidoptera Palaearctica, Karlsruhe 7: 1-436, pls. 1-175.
Pelham-Clinton, E.C., 1985. Glyphipterigidae. - In: Heath, J. & Emmet, A.M. (eds) The Moths and Butterflies of Great Britain and Ireland 2: 400-407.
Medvedev, G. S., (ed.), 1981 Opredelitel' Nasekomykh Evropeiskoi Chasti SSSR, 4, Cheshuekrylye, 2. - Leningrad.
Medvedev, G. S. (ed.), 1990. Keys to the Insects of the European Part of the USSR. IV part 2. Brill, Leiden. [Translation of Medvedev 1981]

 

Heliodinidae
David Agassiz

A family of about 55 species of which just one is known in Europe. Distinguished by vein CuP being absend from forewing. Illustrated and described by Emmet (1985) and Medvedev (1981/90).

References
Emmet, A.M., 1985. Heliodinidae. - In: Heath, J. & Emmet, A.M. (eds), The Moths and Butterflies of Great Britain and Ireland 2: 410.
Medvedev, G. S., (ed.), 1981 Opredelitel' Nasekomykh Evropeiskoi Chasti SSSR, 4, Cheshuekrylye, 2. - Leningrad.
Medvedev, G. S. (ed.), 1990. Keys to the Insects of the European Part of the USSR. IV part 2. Brill, Leiden. [Translation of Medvedev 1981]

 

Bedelliidae
Wolfram Mey

The family comprises the single genus Bedellia with about 18 described species. The tiny moths have grey or brown forewings irregularly sprinkled with darker scales. The larvae are leaf miners. The hostplants of the nearly cosmopolitan B. somnulentella are species of Convulvulaceae. The phylogenetic relationship of the family is unresolved. It was traditionally included in the Lyonetiidae.

Lyonetiidae
Wolfram Mey

There is no clear systematic concept of this family. All textbook authors on Lepidoptera include a different set of taxa in this family. The Lyonetiidae sensu lato is a small family of tiny micromoths with a world-wide distribution. About 200 species have been described. The larvae are leaf and twig miners. Host plants belong predominantly to the Rosaceae and Fabaceae in Europe. About 200 species have been described. The largest genus is Leucoptera which includes a number of important pest species of fruit trees, vegetables and coffee. The European species of this genus have been revised by Mey (1994).

Reference
Mey, W., 1994: Taxonomische Bearbeitung der westpaläarktischen Arten der Gattung Leucoptera Hübner, [1825], s.l. (Insecta, Lepidoptera). - Deutsches Entomologische Zeitschrift, N.F. 41: 173-234.

 

Ethmiidae
András Kun

The Ethmiidae is a comparatively small family of rather conspicuous moths, with about 300 described species in 3-5 genera, which are distributed in all major continents. They form a basal clade of the Gelechioidea next to the Stenomatidae, but in spite of being rather easily recognizable they are only supported by few synapomorphies (Hodges 1999). The group is treated either as a subfamily of the Elachistidae (Minet 1990; Hodges 1999) or given family status (Sattler 1967; Riedl 1996). Here we follow the latter opinion.
Ethmiids are among the best known gelechioid moths. The Palaearctic fauna was monographed by Sattler (1967) who recognized 72 species. He placed all species in the genus Ethmia Hübner, 1819, which he divided into 23 species groups. Riedl (1996) listed 27 species from Europe.
The European ethmiid fauna has subsequently been studied by a number of authors. Taxonomic/faunistic studies of the Ethmiidae of the European part of the former Soviet Union were published by Zagulajev (1981; 1990), Poland (Buszko 1978), northern Europe (Palm 1989), central Europe (Hannemann 1997), and Great Britain and Ireland by (Sattler 2002). Other additions to the knowledge of the European ethmiids are either data on their bionomics (e.g., Szeoke & Dulinafka 1989; Prins et al. 1991; Kun 2001), regional faunistic works (e.g., Burmann 1980; Popescu-Gorj 1984; Szyska 1997) or checklists of certain regions and/or countries. The latest described species from Europe (Greece, Rhodes) is E. mariannae (Karsholt & Kun 2003).
The Ethmiidae of Europe can be considered, as well known even though several species, and especially their biology, are still imperfectly known.

References
Buszko, J. 1978. Ethmiidae. - Klucze do Oznaczania Owadow Polski 27 (36): 1-21.
Burmann, K. 1980. Beiträge zur Microlepidopterenfauna Tirols. 2. Ethmiidae (Lepidoptera). - Nachrichtenblatt der Bayerischen Entomologen 29: 25-29.
Gozmány, L., in press. The Lepidopera of Greece. - Hellenic Zoological Society, Athens.
Hannemann, H. J. 1997. Kleinschmetterlinge oder Microlepidoptera 5: Oecophoridae, Chimabachidae, Carcinidae, Ethmiidae, Stathmopodidae. - Die Tierwelt Deutschlands 70: 1-165.
Hodges, R. W. 1999. The Gelechioidea. Pp. 131-158. - In: N. P. Kristensen (ed.): Lepidoptera, Moths and Butterflies. Volume 1: Evolution, Systematics, and Biogeography. - Handbuch der Zoologie 4 (35): i-x, 1-491. Walter de Gruyter, Berlin, New York.
Karsholt, O. & Kun, A. 2003. A new species of Ethmia Hübner, 1819 from Greek island of Rhodes (Ethmiidae). - Nota lepidopterologica 25(4): 207-212.
Kun, A. 2001. Data to the distribution and bionomics of Ethmia dodecea (Lepidoptera: Oecophoridae) in Hungary. - Folia ent. Hung. 62: 383-384.
Minet, J. 1990. Remaniement partiel de la clssification des Gelechioidea, essentiellement en fonction de caractères pré-imaginaux. - Alexanor 16: 239-255.
Neumann, H. 2000. Ethmia iraniella Zerny, 1940 (Ethmiidae) und Aterpia circumfluxana Christoph, 1881 (Tortricidae), zwei für Rumänien neue Mikrolepidopterenarten. - Entomologica Romanica 4: 69-72.
Palm, E. 1989. Nordeuropas Prydvinger (Lepidoptera: Oecophoridae). - Danmarks Dyreliv 4: 1-247. Fauna Bøger, København.
Popescu-Gorj, A. 1984. Ethmia lugubris (Staudinger) (Lepidoptera, Ethmiidae), espèce nouvelle pour la faune de Roumanie. - Travaux du Muséum d'Histoire Naturelle "Grigore Antipa" 25: 239-240.
Prins, A. H., Laan, R. M., Verboom, J. & Verboom, B. 1991. Food plant quality of Cynoglossum officinale and herbivory by Ethmia bipunctella (Lepidoptera, Ethmiidae). - Netherlands Journal of Zoology 41: 184-193.
Riedl, T. 1996. Ethmiidae. - Pp. 63-64. In: O. Karsholt & J. Razowski (eds): The Lepidoptera of Europe. A Distributional Checklist. 380 pp. Apollo Books, Stenstrup.
Sattler, K. 1967. Ethmiidae. - In: H. G. Amsel, F. Gregor & H. Reisser (eds): Microlepidoptera Palaearctica 2 (1): i-xi, 1-185; 2 (2): pls 1-106. Wien.
Sattler, K. 2002. Ethmiidae. - In: A. M. Emmet & J. R. Langmaid, Oecophoridae - Scythrididae (excluding Gelechiidae). The Moths and Butterflies of Great Britain and Ireland 4 (1): Pp. 178-187, pl. 5. Harley, Colchester.
Szeoke, K. & Dulinafka, G. 1989. Damage of Ethmia bipunctella F. (Lep. Ethmiidae) in Alkanna tinctoria plants. - Növenyvedelem 25: 142.
Szyska, P. 1997. Ethmia fumidella Wocke, ny sjælden dansk småsommerfugl. - Lepidoptera 7: 112-113.
Zagulajev, A. K., 1990. Family Ethmiidae. - In: G. S. Medvedev (ed.): Keys to the Insects of the European part of the USSR 4, Lepidoptera part 2: 853-871. . E. J. Brill, Leiden, New York, København, Køln. [English translation of Zagulajev, 1981].

 

Depressariidae
Alexandr Lvovsky

More than 600 species worldwide; 169 species known in Europe.
Wings more or less broad, tightly pressed with each other horizontally at rest, so the moth gets a depressed form. Hindwing with Rs and M1 separate and more or less parallel. In male genitalia gnathos with spinose medial knob, uncus usually rudimental. In female genitalia ovipositor short, corpus bursae usually with single signum, in form of a small dentate plate.
The larvae are leaf tiers or seed feeders on different angiosperms, especially Apiaceae and Asteraceae, and are of minor economic importance. Univoltine, with only one known exception; in temperate regions with cold winter usually hibernating as adults.
The rank of this taxon has been debated. It was treated as subfamily in Oecophoridae (Harper et al., 2002) or in Elachistidae (Leraut, 1993). In my opinion, it deserves the rank of a separate family (Sinev, 1992; Hannemann, 1995).

References
Hannemann, H. J., 1953. Naturliche Gruppierung der europaischen Arten der Gattung Depressaria s. l. (Lep., Oecoph.). - Mitteilungen aus dem Zoologischen Museum in Berlin, 29: 269-373.
Hannemann, H. J., 1995. Kleinschmetterlinge oder Microlepidopter 4. Flachleibmotten (Depressariidae). - Die Tierwelt Deutschlands, 69: 192 pp
Harper, M. W., Langmaid, J.R., & Emmet, A.M., 2002. Oecophoridae. - The Moths and Butterflies of Great Britain and Ireland 4 (1): 43-177.
Hodges, R.W., 1974. Gelechioidea, Oecophoridae. - The Moths of America North of Mexico, 6 (2), 142 pp., 7 pls.
Leraut, P., 1993. Redefinition de certains taxa du groupe-famille appartenant aux Gelechioidea (Lep.). - Entomologica Gallica, 3 (3): 129-138.
L'vovskii, A.L., 1989. Family Oecophoridae. - Keys to the Insects of the European part of the USSR. New Delhi, 4 (2): 747-852.
Sinev, S. Yu., 1992. On the system and phylogeny of the Gelechioidea S. L. (Lepidoptera). - Entomologicheskoe Obozrenie, 71 (1): 143-159 (In Russian).

Elachistidae
Lauri Kaila

The Elachistidae is a family of small moths with notoriously difficult taxonomy. The fauna of Elachistidae is not well known in many European countries, and many errors probably exist among the published literature. The taxonomy itself is not settled, and further synonymies as well as descriptions of new species are anticipated within Europe. Therefore the taxonomic and geographic list here presented should be viewed as preliminary. The generic and subgeneric classification of the Elachistidae followed here is based on Kaila (1999). Since the check-list published by Parenti (1996), some papers giving a lot new faunistic and/or taxonomic data have been published on Elachistidae. Parenti (2002) summarises many of them. In addition, Kaila et al. (2001) revise the taxonomy of the Elachista regificella complex and Kaila & Junnilainen (2002) the E. cingillella complex. In the faunistic data, only those records of E. regificella and E. cingillella that were explicitly checked in these papers have been incorporated, and the remaining country records excluded. Klepikov (2001) has reviewed the Elachistidae fauna of the Jaroslav oblast of Russia, Kaila & Karsholt (2002) of Madeira, and Kaila et al. (2003) that of the southern Ural Mts. New species and/or faunistic records have also been published by Sruoga & Diškus (2001) and Huemer & Kaila (2003).

References
Huemer, P. & Kaila, L. 2003. Elachista (Elachista) morandinii sp. n., a new species from Central Europe (Lepidoptera, Elachistidae). - Gortania 24, in press.
Kaila, L. 1999. Phylogeny and classification of the Elachistidae s.s. (Lepidoptera: Gelechioidea). - Systematic Entomology 24: 139-169.
Kaila, L., Bengtsson, B. Å., Šulcs, I. & Junnilainen, J. 2001. A revision of the Elachista regificella Sircom -complex (Lepidoptera: Elachistidae). - Entomologica Fennica 12: 153-168.
Kaila, L. & Junnilainen, J. 2002. Taxonomy and identification of Elachista cingillella (H.-S.) and its close relatives (Lepidoptera: Elachistidae), with descriptions of two new species. Entomologica Fennica 13: 167-188.
Kaila, L. & Karsholt, O., 2002. Contribution to the Lepidoptera fauna of the Madeira island Part 3. Elachistidae. - Beiträge zur Entomologie 52: 225-233.
Kaila, L., Nupponen, K., Junnilainen, J., Nupponen, T., Kaitila, J.-P. & Olschwang, V., 2003. Contribution to the fauna of Elachistidae (Lepidoptera) of the Southern Ural Mountains. - Entomologica Fennica 14: 65-90.
Klepikov, M., 2001. [On the elachistid fauna (Lepidoptera, Elachistidae) of Jaroslavskoy oblast]. - Sovremennie problemi biologii, khimii, ekologii i ekologicheskovo obrazhovanija (Jaroslav) 2001: 130-132.
Parenti, U., 1996. Elachistidae. - In: Karsholt, O. & Razowski, J. (Eds.), The Lepidoptera of Europe. A distributional checklist: 68-73. Apollo Books, Stenstrup.
Parenti, U., 2002. Corrections and additions to the Checklist of European Elachistidae (Lepidoptera: Elachistidae). -SHILAP Revista de Lepidopterologia 30: 149-153.
Sruoga, V. & Diškus, A. 2001. Stephensia brunnichella (Lepidoptera: Elachistidae) new species for Lithuania. - Acta Zoologica Lituanica 11 (1): 73-77.

 

Agonoxenidae
Sergey Yu. Sinev & J.C. (Sjaak) Koster

The agonoxenids may be distinguished from most other narrow-winged Gelechioidea by the antennae, which are only slightly shorter or even longer than the forewings, and the labial palpi which often have a tuft of rough scales in on segment 2 frontally; the forewings usually have two large and sometimes several small tufts of raised scales or tubercular silvery spots.
They are mainly distributed in woodlands, where they can be found along forest edges, among shrubs, and in gardens. Some species are especially common in old city parks. Larvae are usually twig- or bark-borers, sometimes gall-makers of various woody, rarely herbaceous plants of various families, in the first instars they sometimes mine leaves or stems. Adults rest on trunks and branches of their host-plants during daytime, with the body tightly appressed to the substrate; some of them are easily attracted to light.
A number of characters of both adults and immatures show plesiomorphic states, sharing with Elachistidae, Ethmiidae, etc., and demonstrating that the Agonoxenidae is one of the most archaic families of gelechioid moths. The taxonomy of the family at suprageneric level should be revised. Sometimes several subfamilies (or tribes) are recognized, i.e. Parametriotinae (Capuse, 1971), Blastodacninae (Sinev, 1979), and Lamprysticinae (Lvovsky, 1997).
The Agonoxenidae are especially well represented in tropical regions from where many species were erroneously described in other groups of Microlepidoptera. The western Palaearctic fauna of the family was revised by Riedl (1969) and very recently by the authors (Koster & Sinev, 2003). In Europe, six genera and 16 species are known. Many old records for the genera Blastodacna and Chrysoclista should be verified, owing to the discovery of sibling species and misuse of specific names (Diakonoff, 1939; Sinev, 1988; Karsholt, 1997). Some additional information about taxonomy, nomenclature and distribution can be found in the papers by Sinev (1986, 1988, 1999).

References
Diakonoff, A., 1939. Notes on Microlepidoptera II. Remarks on some species of the genus Blastodacna Wocke (Cosmopterygidae). - Tijdschrift voor Entomologie 82: 64-77.
Capuse, I., 1971. Recherches morphologiques et systematiques sur la famille des Coleophoridae (Lepidoptera). 66 pp., 46 pls. Bucarest.
Karsholt, O., 1997. The genus Chrysoclista Stainton, 1854 in Europe (Lepidoptera, Agonoxenidae). - Entomologiske Meddelelserr 65: 29-33.
Koster, J. C. & Sinev, S. Yu., 2003. Momphidae, Batrachedridae, Stathmopodidae, Agonoxenidae, Chrysopeleiidae, Cosmopterigidae. - In: Huemer, P., Karsholt, O. & Lyneborg, L. (eds). Microlepidoptera of Europe 5: 1-387. Stenstrup.
Riedl, T., 1969. Matériaux pour la connaissance des Momphidae paléarctiques (Lepidoptera), 9. Revue des Momphidae européennes, y compris quelques espèces d'Afrique du Nord et du Proche-Orient. - Polsk. Pismo ent. 39 (4): 635-919.
Lvovsky, A. L., 1996. A review of the genus Lamprystica Meyrick, 1914, with the description of a new subfamily (Lepidoptera, Agonoxenidae). - Atalanta 27: 427-432.
Sinev, S. Yu., 1979. On the composition and systematic position of the genus Tetanocentria Rbl. (Lepidoptera, Momphidae). - Ent. Obozr. 58: 590-598.
Sinev, S. Yu., 1986. A list of the narrow-winged moths (Lepidoptera, Momphidae s.l.) in the fauna of the USSR. - Trudy Vses. ent. Obshch. 67: 19-74.
Sinev, S. Yu., 1988. New taxa of the Blastodacninae moth subfamily (Lepidoptera, Momphidae s.l.) of the USSR fauna. - Vestn. Zool. 1988 (5): 15-21.
Sinev, S. Yu., 1999. Notes on the synonymy of the narrow-winged moths (Lepidoptera: Agonoxenidae, Cosmopterigidae, Momphidae) of Palaearctic. - Ent. Obozr. 78 (1): 138-149.

 

Scythrididae
Bengt Å. Bengtsson

The Scythrididae are typically small to medium-sized Microlepidoptera, teardrop-shaped, diurnal or occasionally nocturnal. The coloration is normally dark but in S Europe some species are pale with more or less extended and distinct dark markings, always so in the genera Enolmis and Episcythris. Due to the great similarities between scythridids several specimens kept in museums have been incorrectly determined. This condition differs, however, from museum to museum.
The phylogeny is extremely troublesome and has resisted all attempts to be elucidated. The species order thus differs between those adopted in Passerin d'Entrèves (1996) and Bengtsson (1997).
During the last decade several new species from the eastern and southern Europe have been described and new discoveries have been made (Nupponen & Nupponen, 1999, 2004, Nupponen et al., 2000, 2003, Sachkov, 1995, 1999, 2000, 2002)
The pre-imaginal stages are very poorly known. Important contribution in this respect have recently been given by Baran (1995, 1996, 1999, 2002).

References
Baran, T., 1995. Studies on the Scythrididae (Lepidoptera) of Poland, 1. On the occurrence of Scythris fallacella (Schläger, 1847) in Poland. - Wiadomosci Entomologiczne 14 (3): 165-168.
Baran, T., 1996. Studies on the Scythrididae (Lepidoptera) of Poland, 2. Records of rare species. - Polskie Pismo Entomologiczne 65: 259-265.
Baran, T., 1999. Morphology and biology of Scythris clavella (Zeller, 1855) (Lepidoptera: Scythrididae). - Polskie Pismo Entomologiczne 68: 165-195.
Baran, T., 2002. Immature stages and bionomy of Scythris bifissella (Hofmann, 1889) (Lepidoptera: Scythrididae). - Polskie Pismo Entomologiczne 71: 195-209.
Bengtsson, B. Å., 1997. Scythrididae. - Microlepidoptera of Europe 2: 1-301, Stenstrup.
Nupponen, K. & T. Nupponen, 1999. Scythris saarelai sp. n. from southern Spain and further records of Scythris mariannae Bengtsson, 1991 with a new synonym (Lepidoptera: Scythrididae). -Entomologica Fennica 10(3): 161-166.
Nupponen, K., Bengtsson, B. Å., Kaitila, J.-P., Nupponen, T., Junnilainen, J. & Olschwang, V., 2000. The scythridid fauna of the southern Ural Mountains, with description of fourteen new species (Lepidoptera: Scythrididae). - Entomologica Fennica 11: 5-34.
Nupponen, K., T. Nupponen, E. Saarela & L. Sippola, 2003. New records on Microlepidoptera from the western Miditerranean region (Lepidoptera: Nepticulidae, Scythrididae, Tortricidae). - SHILAP Revista de Lepidopterologia 31 (123): 229-233.
Nupponen, K. & Nupponen, T., 2004. Notes on the Scythrididae recorded in southern Spain during 2003, with description of one new species (Lepidoptera: Scythrididae). - SHILAP Revista de Lepidopterologia 32 (125): 31-37.
Passerin d'Entrèves, P., 1996. Scythrididae. - In: Karsholt, O. & Razowski, J. (Eds.), The Lepidoptera of Europe. A distributional checklist: 74-78. Apollo Books, Stenstrup.
Sachkov, S. A., 1995. New for Europe species of Microlepidoptera (Lepidoptera: Scythrididae, Elachistidae) from Samara Region. - Actias 2(1-2): 77-78.
Sachkov, S. A., 1999. The distribution of scythridid moths (Lepidoptera, Scythrididae) in the European part of Russia. Biodiversity of terrestrial and soil invertebrates in the north. - Proceedings of the International Conference 15-17 September 1999, Syktyvkar. Syktyvkar: Komi SC UrD RAS: 176-178.
Sachkov, S. A., 2000. New Species of Scythridid Moths (Lepidoptera, Scythrididae) from the Middle Volga River Region. - Zoologicheskii Zhurnal 79 (12): 1479-1484.
Sachkov, S. A., 2002. A new and a little-known species of Scythris Huebner, 1825 (Lepidoptera: Scythrididae) from Kazakhstan and the Middle Volga, and three species of Scythris newly synonymised. - Entomologist's Gazette 53(4): 259-264.

 

Chimabachidae
Alexandr Lvovsky

This family has only eight Palearctic species with one species introduced into the Nearctic region; three species occur in Europe.
Females with more or less reduced wings. In male genitalia gnathos rudimental or absent, but large transtilla present. In female genitalia the ductus bursae short; corpus bursae small, with minute signum or without it.
Larvae with metathoracic tibia and tarsus swollen, feeding on leaves of different trees and shrubs (Salicaceae, Betulaceae, Fagaceae, Rosaceae and etc.), of minor economic importance. All species are univoltine, and hibernate as pupa, in one species as an egg.

References
Hannemann, H.J., 1997. Kleinschmetterlinge oder Microlepidoptera 5. Oecophoridae, Chimabachidae, Carcinidae, Ethmiidae, Stathmopodidae. - Die Tierwelt Deutschlands, 70: 163 pp.
Harper, M.W., Langmaid, J.R., & Emmet, A.M. 2002. Oecophoridae. - The Moths and Butterflies of Great Britain and Ireland. Harley Books, 4 (1):43-177.

 

Schistonoeidae
Alexandr Lvovsky

Only two species known, of which one occurs in Europe.
Wings rather narrow; hindwing with Rs and M1 long stalked. In male genitalia gnathos in form of sclerotized process, broadly fused with tegumen laterally (genus Oecia). In female genitalia ovipositor rather short; signum as tack-shaped spines, circling of corpus bursae.
Larvae feed on leaves of Bromelia Juss. (Bromeliaceae) and on domestic refuse (Meyrick, 1922). Polyvoltine.

References
Gozmany, L.A., 1963. The family Symmocidae and the description of new taxa mainly from the Near East (Lepidoptera). - Acta Zool. Hung., 9: 67-134.
Hodges, R.W., 1999. The Gelechioidea. - Handbook of Zoology, IV, Arthropoda: Insecta, 35, Lepidoptera, Moths and Butterflies, Berlin-New York, 1: 131-158.
Meyrick, 1922.

 

Oecophoridae
Alexandr Lvovsky

More than 3000 species worldwide; of which 124 species in Europe.
Wings from narrow to moderately wide. Hindwings with Rs and M1 separate and more or less parallel. In male genitalia gnathos unarticulated sclerotized and broad-based, tapering to slender or rounded apex. Uncus usually sclerotized and conic. In female genitalia ovipositor of moderate length; corpus bursae usually with 1-3 signi, rarely without it.
Larvae feed on dead plant tissue, under the bark of old trees or on leaf litter, of minor economic importance. Most species are univoltine, usually hibernating in the larval stage.
The structure of this taxon is still problematic. In my opinion, in the Palearctic region the family includes three subfamilies: Deuterogoniinae; Oecophorinae with the tribes Oecophorini, Carcinini and Crossotocerini; Pleurotinae (=Philobotinae).
However, in the literature also other viewpoints can be found:
(1) Oecophoridae with only 2 subfamilies, Oecophorinae and Philobotinae, whereas Carcinidae constitutes a separate family (Leraut, 1993);
(2) Oecophoridae with 2 subfamilies, Oecophorinae and Stathmopodinae, Pleurotini treated as a tribe in Oecophorinae, and Deuterogoniinae transferred to Elachistidae as a subfamily (Hodges, 1999);
(3) Oecophoridae with 4 subfamilies: Oecophorinae, Stathmopodinae, Chimabachinae, and Depressariinae (Harper et al., 2002);
(4) Oecophoridae with 7 subfamilies: Depressariinae, Amphisbatinae, Chimabachinae, Deuterogoniinae, Oecophorinae, Pleurotinae, and Autostichinae (Kuznetzov & Stekolnikov, 2001).

References
Hannemann, H.J., 1997. Kleinschmetterlinge oder Microlepidoptera 5. Oecophoridae, Chimabachidae, Carcinidae, Ethmiidae, Stathmopodidae. - Die Tierwelt Deutschlands, 70: 163 pp.
Harper, M.W., Langmaid, J.R., & Emmet, A.M. 2002. Oecophoridae. - The Moths and Butterflies of Great Britain and Ireland. Harley Books, 4 (1): 43-177.
Hodges, R.W., 1974. Gelechioidea, Oecophoridae. - The Moths of America North of Mexico, 6 (2), 142 pp., 7 pls.
L'vovskii, A.L., 1989. Family Oecophoridae. - Keys to the Insects of the European part of the USSR. New Delhi, 4 (2): 747-852.
Kuznetzov, V.I. & Stekolnikov, A.A., 2001. New approaches to the system of Lepidoptera of world fauna. St.-Petersburg, Nauka, 463 pp. (In Russian).

 

Stathmopodidae
Sergey Yu. Sinev & J.C. (Sjaak) Koster

The stathmopodids, also named the bright-legged moths, can be distinguished from most other narrow-winged Gelechioidea by the very peculiar decoration of the hindlegs, of which the tibia and tarsi are usually brightly coloured and densely covered with piliform scales, especially on the upper side, and with tufts of long bristles at the base of the spurs and at the end of the first tarsal joint. Besides that, the males usually have a long ciliation of the antennae.
They prefer woodlands, but in the south they can also be found in open landscapes with isolated groups of trees. Larvae usually consume reproductive organs of plants (including sporangia of ferns), making silken galleries inside or between them; in the tropics several species also known as scavengers or predators in colonies of scale insects. Adults rest on the leaves of their host-plants in a very peculiar position, with the hindlegs stretched along the sides of the body or even raised above it. They also have a curious hobbled gait, being functionally 'tetrapod' moths.
The family is very similar to some Oecophoridae (sensu stricto) by the general appearance of male genitalia, and this gave grounds to reduce the rank of this group to tribe within the subfamily Oecophorinae (Hodges, 1978). However, the structure of the female genitalia, the larval life-style and the very specialized behaviour favour treating Stathmopodidae as a separate family (Sinev, 2002).
The group is well represented in the Indo-Australian and Afrotropical regions, with very few species recorded from South America and the temperate zones of the Holarctic. More than 20 species are known in the Palaearctic, mainly from its southern borders, with only two genera and three species known in Europe (the genus Neomariania, with five Macaronesian and one Mediterranean species is placed here tentatively). The western Palaearctic fauna of the family was very recently revised by the present authors (Koster & Sinev, 2003). Some additional information about taxonomy, nomenclature and distribution can be found in the papers by Kasy (1973, 1981) and Sinev (1986, 1988).

References
Hodges, R. W., 1978. Gelechioidea. Cosmopterigidae. - In: Dominick, R. B., et al. (eds). The Moths of America North of Mexico 6 (1): i-ix + 1-166, 6 pls. London.
Kasy, F., 1973. Beitrag zur Kenntnis der Familie Stathmopodidae Meyrick, 1913 (Lepidoptera, Gelechioidea). - Tijdschr. Ent. 116 (13): 227-299.
Kasy, F., 1981. Data on the Lepidopterous fauna of Greece (based on the collections of G.Christensen and L.Gozmány). 3. Eine neue Tortilia (Lepid., Oecophoridae). - Z. ArbGem. österr. Ent. 33 (1-2): 30-32.
Koster, J. C. & Sinev, S. Yu., 2003. Momphidae, Batrachedridae, Stathmopodidae, Agonoxenidae, Chrysopeleiidae, Cosmopterigidae. - In: Huemer, P., Karsholt, O. & Lyneborg, L. (eds). Microlepidoptera of Europe 5: 1-387. Stenstrup.
Sinev, S. Yu., 1986. A list of the narrow-winged moths (Lepidoptera, Momphidae s.l.) in the fauna of the USSR. - Trudy Vses. ent. Obshch. 67: 19-74.
Sinev, S. Yu., 1988. A review of bright-leged moths (Lepidoptera, Stathmopodidae) in the fauna of the USSR. - Trudy Zool. Inst., Leningrad 178: 104-133.
Sinev, S. Yu., 2002. Morphological principles for the revision of taxonomic structure of the narrow-winged gelechioid moths (Lepidoptera: Gelechioidea). - Proc. Zool. Inst., St. Petersburg 296: 125-134.

 

Lecithoceridae
Antonio Vives Moreno

A mainly tropical family with more than 500 species known. Larvae detritivores.

 

Batrachedridae
J.C. (Sjaak) Koster & Sergey Yu. Sinev

The Batrachedridae are superficially similar to representatives of the Coleophoridae, having the same kind of longitudinally arranged paired rows of deeply embedded specialized scales ('spines') on abdominal tergites II to VII; usually they can be well distinguished by the extremely narrow linear forewings with two very characteristic dark dots in the fold.
Batrachedridae are mainly associated with woodlands, but also sometimes very common in city parks and avenues. Larvae live in silken galleries between or inside the reproductive organs of different plants, both dicotyledons, monocotyledons and even conifers; exceptionally, myrmecophyly occurs. Adults are often found on the trunks of the trees in a very peculiar resting position with raised anterior part of the body and forelegs directed hindwards.
The family represents a small deviating group of gelechioid moths, which acquired some very peculiar characters such as the linear wings with a clearly reduced venation, enormously long aedeagus in male genitalia, etc. In some respects the Batrachedridae seem to be rather similar to the most specialized forms of Coleophoridae and sometimes is treated as a subfamily of the latter (Hodges, 1978, 1999). The main diversity of the family is observed in America and the Afrotropical region; only about 10 species are known in Palaearctic, with one genus and three species recorded from Europe. Two of these species are widely distributed throughout the region, while the third, originally described from the Mediterranean (Mariani, 1936) only very recently reached the British Isles. The western Palaearctic fauna of the family was revised by the present authors (Koster & Sinev, 2003). Some additional information about taxonomy, nomenclature and distribution (including the dotted maps) can be found in the papers by Sinev (1982, 1986) and Bolov & Sinev (1989).

References
Bolov, A. P. & Sinev, S. Yu., 1989. Batrachedra pinicolella Dup. (Lepidoptera, Batrachedridae) - a pest of conifers in Kabardino-Balkaria. - Ent. Obozr. 68 (3): 522-526.
Hodges, R. W., 1978. Gelechioidea. Cosmopterigidae. - In: Dominick, R. B., et al. (eds). The Moths of America North of Mexico 6 (1): i-ix + 1-166, 6 pls. London.
Hodges, R. W., 1999. The Gelechioidea. - In: Kristensen, N.P. (ed.), Lepidoptera: Moths and Butterflies. Handbook of Zoology 1: 130-158 Berlin & New York.
Koster, J. C. & Sinev, S. Yu., 2003. Momphidae, Batrachedridae, Stathmopodidae, Agonoxenidae, Chrysopeleiidae, Cosmopterigidae. - In: Huemer, P., Karsholt, O. & Lyneborg, L. (eds). Microlepidoptera of Europe 5: 1-387. Stenstrup.
Mariani, M., 1936. Una nuova specie di Eustaintonia Spul. e studio sulla morfologia comparata delle larve del genere (Lepidoptera, Momphidae). - Boll. Soc. ent. ital. 68: 97-103.
Sinev, S. Yu., 1982. Batrachedra praeangusta (Haworth, 1828): Lepidoptera, Momphidae. - In: Gorodkov, K. B. (ed.). Insect ranges in the european part of the USSR 4: 31 (map 153). Leningrad.
Sinev, S. Yu., 1986. A list of the narrow-winged moths (Lepidoptera, Momphidae s.l.) in the fauna of the USSR. - Trudy Vses. ent. Obshch. 67: 19-74.

 

Deoclonidae
Alexander Lvovsky

Only four species in the New World and Palearctic (Hodges 1999); one species is found in southern Europe (see Hering, 1919).
Wings rather narrow; hindwing with M1 and M2 stalked. In male genitalia gnathos absent or in form of articulated band with a spinose medial bulb. In female genitalia of Syringopais Hering ductus bursae sclerotized.
Larvae feed in dry seed pods of Fabaceae, Liliaceae, on fruit mummies of Rosaceae (subfamily Deocloninae), but also as a pest of cereals from October to April (subfamily Syringopainae). Univoltine.

References
Hering, M., 1919. Zur Biologie und systematischen Stellung von Scythris temperatella Led. - Deutsche Entomologische Zeitschrift Iris, 32: 122-129.
Hodges, R.W., 1999. The Gelechioidea. - Handbook of Zoology, IV, Arthropoda: Insecta, 35, Lepidoptera, Moths and Butterflies, Berlin-New York, 1: 131-158.

 

Coleophoridae
Giorgio Baldizzone & Hugo W. van der Wolf

Worldwide there are about 1600 species of Coleophoridae or casebearers, known from all continents, except from south east Asia and the Pacific region.
Coleophoridae are small- to medium-sized Lepidoptera (wingspan 4-24 mm) with narrow fore- and hindwings. When in rest their antennae are stretched forward, while the forewings are folded over hindwings and abdomen. Set specimens can be recognized by two parallel rows of tergal disks on the upperside of the abdomen, covered with small spines.
Larvae live in cases made of leaf material or seeds. They feed on leaves, making round or oval mines through a small hole on the underside, or on flowers or seeds. Most species pupate inside the case. There are also gall-making larvae; they pupate in the stem of the foodplant. The shape of the case and mine, and knowledge of the foodplant often enable identification of the species. Most species are monophagous. Known foodplants belong to a.o. Juncaceae, Salicaceae, Betulaceae, Fagaceae, Asteraceae, Boraginaceae, Caryophyllaceae, Chenopodiaceae, Fabaceae, Ericaceae, Lamiaceae and Plumbaginaceae.
They are found in a great variety of biotopes: coastal and inland salt marshes, wetlands, deserts, steppes, savanna woodlands, heaths, alpine meadows, tundras, deciduous and coniferous woods, agricultural areas. Some palearctic species (C. coracipennella Hübner, spinella Schrank, prunifoliae Doets, hemerobiella Scopoli) occasionally cause damage to young fruits in orchards. So far no Coleophoridae have been found in primary tropical (rain forests). Some palearctic species (C. versurella Zeller, frischella Linnaeus, trifolii Curtis, deauratella Lienig & Zeller) have spread with agricultural weeds to other continents. Two palearctic species (C. parthenica Meyrick, klimeschiella Toll) have been introduced artificially into the United States in an attempt to eradicate the Russian Thistle (Salsola kali Linnaeus) in dry pastures.
On the classification and ranking of Coleophoridae see the introduction to Baldizzone et al. (2004).

References
Baldizzone, G., 1996. Coleophoridae. - In: Karsholt, O. & Razowski, J. (Eds.), The Lepidoptera of Europe. A distributional checklist: 84-95. Apollo Books, Stenstrup.
Baldizzone, G. & Wolf, H.W. van der, 2000. Corrections of and additions to the checklist of European Coleophoridae (Lepidoptera). - SHILAP Revista de Lepidopterologia 28(112): 395-428.
Baldizzone, G., Landry, J.-F. & Wolf, H.W. van der, 2004. World Catalogue of Insects, 5: Coleophoridae (Lepidoptera). - Apollo Books, Stenstrup. 200 pp.

 

Momphidae
Sergey Yu. Sinev & J.C. (Sjaak) Koster

The momphids can be distinguished from most other narrow-winged Gelechioidea by the usually well pronounced tufts of raised scales on the forewings and the remarkable rounded groups of deeply embedded lanceolate scales on abdominal tergites II to VII. They are mainly associated with woodlands, where can be frequently found along forests edges, in forest clearings, and along roads. About 90 % of the species of which the life history is known, are associated with the plant family Onagraceae (Sinev, 1989), with only one exception in Europe. The larvae mine leaves, stems, roots or seed-pods, make galls or live between spun leaves and flowers, sometimes changing the life-style from the first to the last instars. The larval habitat is an important aid to determination, because every species is very specialized on a certain food-plant and even a particular part of it. In most species the imago's hibernate under leaf litter, under the bark of old trees and in other refuges, and sometimes they may even be caught during winter.
The morphological characters are rather uniform within the family, and this is a reason that most species belong to the large genus Mompha. The genus Urodeta is here only placed tentatively. In the Mompha divisella species group, where some species were described only during several last decades (Bradley, 1951; Riedl, 1965; Koster & Sinev, 1996), a sound identification is only possible by studying the genitalia. The family is better represented in North and South America where several tens of species (many undescribed) occur. Only one genus and 19 species are known in Europe. The western Palaearctic fauna of the family was revised by the present authors (Koster & Sinev, 2003). Some additional information about taxonomy, nomenclature and distribution can be found in the papers by Sinev (1986, 1996, 1999).

References
Bradley, J. D., 1951. A comparative study of four European species including one new species from Britain, belonging to the genus Mompha Huebner (Lep.: Lavernidae). - Entomologist's Gaz. 2: 173-182.
Koster, J. C. & Sinev, S. Yu., 1996. A revision of the divisella group of the genus Mompha, with the description of Mompha confusella spec. nov. (Lepidoptera: Momphidae). - Ent. Ber., Amst. 56 (9): 137-148.
Koster, J. C. & Sinev, S. Yu., 2003. Momphidae, Batrachedridae, Stathmopodidae, Agonoxenidae, Chrysopeleiidae, Cosmopterigidae. - In: Huemer, P., Karsholt, O. & Lyneborg, L. (eds). Microlepidoptera of Europe 5: 1-387. Stenstrup.
Riedl, T., 1965. Matériaux pour la connaissance des Momphidae paléarctiques (Lepidoptera), 3. Étude sur quelques Momphides européennes. - Polsk. Pismo ent. 35 (2): 419-468.
Sinev, S. Yu., 1986. A list of the narrow-winged moths (Lepidoptera, Momphidae s.l.) in the fauna of the USSR. - Trudy Vses. ent. Obshch. 67: 19-74.
Sinev, S. Yu., 1989. Adaptive radiation and modes of speciation among the onagraceous narrow-winged moths (Lepidoptera, Momphidae). - Trudy Zool. Inst., Leningrad 202: 106-133.
Sinev, S. Yu., 1996. Geographic distribution and nomenclature of nine species of Momphidae (Lepidoptera) discovered in Asia and North America. - Acta Zool. Fennica 200: 9-17.
Sinev, S. Yu., 1999. Notes on the synonymy of the narrow-winged moths (Lepidoptera: Agonoxenidae, Cosmopterigidae, Momphidae) of Palaearctic. - Ent. Obozr. 78 (1): 138-149.

 

Blastobasidae
Sergey Yu. Sinev

The blastobasids may be distinguished from other narrow-winged Gelechioidea by the dull greyish coloration, lacking a contrasting pattern, the presence of a pterostigma in the forewing, the structure of the antennal base in the male, and the subradial retinaculum in the female. Most species of this family are superficially extremely similar, and a sound identification is often only possible by the genitalia.
The larvae usually feed on different kinds of decaying plant and sometimes animal material, in flower or seed heads, on fresh and stored fruits, and only exceptionally on green plant tissue. They can also be found as scavengers in the nests of other insects or spiders, or as predators in the colonies of scale insects.
There is a broad consensus that the blastobasids form a monophyletic group which is usually given family rank, but Hodges (1999) downgraded it to a subfamily of the Coleophoridae.
This moderately sized family includes 20 genera and approximately 270 described species worldwide, with many more species awaiting description (Sinev, 2004a). Most of them are known from tropical or subtropical regions, and only a few are represented in the temperate zone of the Old World. The Palaearctic fauna has been partly revised by Buszko (1978), Sinev (1986, 1993, 2004b), Dickson (2002), and Karsholt & Sinev (2004). In Europe 19 species from five genera were recorded, including three recently introduced to the region. Besides that, 24 endemic species are known from the Madeira Islands and six from the Canary Islands.

References
Buszko, J., 1978. Ethmiidae, Blastobasidae. - Klucze do oznaczania owadów Polski 27 (36): 1-32.
Dickson, R. J., 2002. Blastobasidae. - In: Emmet, A. M. & Langmaid, J. R. (eds.). The Moths and Butterflies of Great Britain and Ireland 4 (1): 196-203. Colchester.
Hodges, R. W., 1999. The Gelechioidea. - In: Kristensen, N.P. (ed.), Lepidoptera: Moths and Butterflies. Handbook of Zoology 1: 130-158. Berlin & New York.
Karsholt, O. & Sinev, S. Yu., 2004. Contribution to the Lepidoptera fauna of the Madeira Islands. Part 4. Blastobasidae. - Beiträge zur Entomologie, in press.
Sinev, S. Yu., 1986. A review of blastobasid-moths (Lepidoptera, Blastobasidae) in the fauna of the USSR. - Proc. Zool. Inst., Leningrad 145: 53-71.
Sinev, S. Yu., 1993. New and little-known species of blastobasid moths (Lepidoptera, Blastobasidae) from the Palaearctic region. - Entomol. Obozr. 72 (2): 368-377.
Sinev, S. Yu., 2004a. World catalogue of blastobasid moths (Lepidoptera, Blastobasidae). - Proc. Zool. Inst., St. Petersburg, in press.
Sinev, S. Yu., 2004b. New and little known species of the grey moths (Lepidoptera, Gelechioidea: Blastobasidae) of Palaearctic. - Entomol. Obozr. 83, in press.

 

Pterolonchidae
Antonio Vives Moreno

A small family with only 8 species known, from Mediterranean and South-Africa.

 

Autostichidae
Antonio Vives Moreno

Includes the groups Symmocinae and Holcopoginae, which were previously often considered as separate families.
Ca. 308 species known. Larvae feed on dead plant or animal matter. Most European species occur in the Mediterranean countries.

 

Amphisbastidae
Alexander Lvovsky

More than 300 species all over the world, probably with the exception of Africa; 29 species in Europe.
Wings narrow or rather broad. Hindwing with Rs and M1 separate and parallel. In male genitalia uncus conical; gnathos with spinose medial knob. In female genitalia ovipositor short; corpus bursae with signum
in form of small plate or without it.
Larvae are case bearers on dead fallen leaves (Amphisbatis and Pseudatemelia); others feed on fresh leaves of different trees and grasses, without economic importance. Univoltine, with larvae usually overwintering.
The rank and structure of this taxon are questionable. In my opinion, it is a separate family with four tribes: Amphisbatini, Fuchsiini, Telechrysidini and Hypercalliini. The close relationship of Amphisbatis and Pseudatemelia is obvious, but other genera are included into the family rather formally.
Still two other viewpoints can be found in the literature:
(1) Amphisbatinae treated as subfamily in Coleophoridae, and tribe Fuchsiini and Telechrysidini transferred to Depressariinae, and tribe Hypercalliini - to Hypertrophinae (Leraut, 1993);
(2) Amphisbatinae treated as subfamily in Oecophoridae, and tribe Hypercalliini transferred to Depressariinae (Kuznetzov & Stekolnikov, 2001).

References
Hannemann, H.J., 1997. Kleinschmetterlinge oder Microlepidoptera 5. Oecophoridae, Chimabachidae, Carcinidae, Ethmiidae, Stathmopodidae. - Die Tierwelt Deutschlands, 70: 163 pp.
Hodges, R.W., 1999. The Gelechioidea. - Handbook of Zoology, IV, Arthropoda: Insecta, 35, Lepidoptera, Moths and Butterflies, Berlin-New York, 1: 131-158.
Kuznetzov, V.I. & Stekolnikov, A.A., 2001. New approaches to the system of Lepidoptera of world fauna. St.-Petersburg, Nauka, 463 pp. (In Russian).
Leraut, P., 1993. Redefinition de certains taxa du groupe-famille appartenant aux Gelechioidea (Lep.). - Entomologica Gallica, 3 (3): 129-138.

 

Cosmopterigidae
Sergey Yu. Sinev & J.C. (Sjaak) Koster

The cosmopterigids can be distinguished from most other narrow-winged Gelechioidea by the usually very bright coloration, often with conspicuous pattern and shining metallic markings on the forewings, and by the pronounced asymmetry of the male genitalia. Representatives of this family prefer more or less open landscapes (meadows, steppes), open forests, sites along rivers, clearings along roads, etc. The larvae mine leaves or sometimes cause galls mainly in herbaceous plants and shrubs (usually belong to Rosaceae, Asteraceae, Lamiaceae and Poaceae); they rarely feed on flowers, seeds or fruits. Larvae of many tropical species use decaying plant material; some of these are inquilines in galls made by wasps or predators in colonies of scale insects. The adults rest position is characteristic, with the hind legs appressed to the more or less raised posterior part of the body. Most species also have a very peculiar behaviour, often dancing on the leaves (preferably of their host-plants) making circular movements. As a rule, the moths are easily attracted to light, but some species with diurnal activity can be collected only on their host plant or on flowering grasses.
The Cosmopterigidae is a very specialized family of gelechioid moths which is characterized by a large number of apomorphies, although many of them are only the autapomorphies of a proper subfamily or generic group. Two subfamilies are represented in Europe: the Antequerinae and the advanced and abundant Cosmopteriginae. More than 95% of the known species belongs o this subfamily. The Chrysopeleiidae, which are often regarded as a subfamily of Cosmopterigidae Hodges (1978), is here treated as a separate family. The family has about 100 genera and more than 2,000 species worldwide (Sinev, 2002) and is especially well represented in the tropics of both Old and New World, where thousands of species (mostly undescribed) are known. The western Palaearctic fauna of the family was revised by the present authors (Koster & Sinev, 2003). In Europe, 17 genera and 67 species are known; some species were introduced from other regions during the last decades. Additional information about taxonomy, nomenclature and distribution (including the dotted maps) can be found in the papers by Sinev (1984a-c, 1985, 1986, 1997a-b, 1999).

References
Hodges, R. W., 1978. Gelechioidea. Cosmopterigidae. - In: Dominick, R. B., et al. (eds). The Moths of America North of Mexico 6 (1): i-ix + 1-166, 6 pls. London.
Koster, J. C. & Sinev, S. Yu., 2003. Momphidae, Batrachedridae, Stathmopodidae, Agonoxenidae, Chrysopeleiidae, Cosmopterigidae. - In: Huemer, P., Karsholt, O. & Lyneborg, L. (eds). Microlepidoptera of Europe 5: 1-387. Stenstrup.
Sinev, S. Yu., 1984a. Pancalia latreillella Curtis, 1830: Lepidoptera, Momphidae. - In: Gorodkov, K. B. (ed.). Insect ranges in the european part of the USSR 5: 35 (map 195). Leningrad.
Sinev, S. Yu., 1984b. Pancalia leuwenhoekella (Linnaeus, 1761): Lepidoptera, Momphidae. - In: Gorodkov, K. B. (ed.). Insect ranges in the european part of the USSR 5: 36 (map 196). Leningrad.
Sinev, S. Yu., 1984c. Pyroderces argyrogrammos (Zeller, 1849): Lepidoptera, Momphidae. - In: Gorodkov, K. B. (ed.). Insect ranges in the european part of the USSR 5: 37 (map 197). Leningrad.
Sinev, S. Yu., 1985. A review of the genus Pancalia Stephens (Lepidoptera, Cosmopterigidae) in the fauna of the USSR. - Ent. Obozr. 64 (4): 804-822.
Sinev, S. Yu., 1986. A list of the narrow-winged moths (Lepidoptera, Momphidae s.l.) in the fauna of the USSR. - Trudy Vses. ent. Obshch. 67: 19-74.
Sinev, S. Yu., 1997a. A brief review of the genus Coccidiphila Dan. (Lepidoptera, Cosmopterigidae) with a description of a new species from west Mediterranean. - Ent. Obozr. 76 (1): 203-209.
Sinev, S. Yu., 1997b. A review of the narrow-winged moths of the genus Cosmopterix Hb. (Lepidoptera, Cosmopterigidae) of Palaearctic region. - Ent. Obozr. 76 (4): 813-829.
Sinev, S. Yu., 1999. Notes on the synonymy of the narrow-winged moths (Lepidoptera: Agonoxenidae, Cosmopterigidae, Momphidae) of Palaearctic. - Ent. Obozr.78 (1): 138-149.
Sinev, S. Yu., 2002. World catalogue of cosmopterigid moths (Lepidoptera: Cosmopterigidae). - Proc. Zool. Inst., St. Petersburg 293: 1- 182.

 

Cosmopterigidae - Chrysopeleiinae
Sergey Yu. Sinev & Sjaak Koster

The chrysopeleiids can be distinguished from most other narrow-winged Gelechioidea by the more or less blunt (not acutely pointed) labial palpi and the very peculiar structure of both the male and female genitalia; in some genera, the forewings are covered by small tufts of raised scales, more numerous than in Momphidae.
They are mainly distributed in arid and semiarid habitats (deserts, steppes and savannas); only very few species are found in woodlands of the temperate zone. The larvae predominately use plants of Fabaceae, Tamaricaceae, Polygonaceae and Rhamnaceae, boring in buds, twigs and branches, rarely living in a silken web between spun leaves or flowers; some species are able to form stem-galls. Adults are nocturnal and easily attracted to light.
The family is one of the most specialized among the gelechioid moths, with very few morphological characters in a plesiomorphic state. In many respects Chrysopeleiidae look like some representatives of Cosmopterigidae and they are often treated as a subfamily of that family (Hodges, 1978, 1999). However, the majority of the highly specialized characters in both groups appear independently or were erroneously regarded as homologous, which is the reason that we consider the Chrysopeleiidae as a separate family (Sinev, 2002), following the earlier viewpoint by Hodges (1962). The considerable superficial similarity of Chrysopeleiidae to some representatives of Momphidae and Cosmopterigidae was the reason that in the past many species were described as members of these two families. The western Palaearctic fauna of the family was revised by Kasy (1968, 1969), Riedl (1969) and very recently by the present authors (Koster & Sinev, 2003). In Europe, five genera and 14 species are known. All records for the genus Sorhagenia Spuler published before 1962 should be verified owing to the discovery of a group of sibling species (Riedl, 1962; Malicky & Sobhian, 1971). Some additional information about taxonomy, nomenclature and distribution (including the dotted maps) can be found in the papers by Sinev (1986, 1993).

References
Hodges, R. W., 1962. A revision of the Cosmopterigidae of America North of Mexico, with a definition of the Momphidae and Walshiidae (Lepidoptera: Gelechioidea). - Ent. Amer. (n.s.) 42: 1-171.
Hodges, R. W., 1978. Gelechioidea. Cosmopterigidae. - In: Dominick, R.B., et al. (eds). The Moths of America North of Mexico 6 (1): i-ix + 1-166, 6 pls. London.
Hodges, R. W., 1999. The Gelechioidea. - In: Kristensen, N.P. (ed.), Lepidoptera: Moths and Butterflies. Handbook of Zoology 1: 130-158. Berlin & New York.
Kasy, F., 1968. Die Walshiidae-Gattung Calycobathra Meyrick (Lepidoptera, Gelechioidea). - Ann. naturhistor. Mus. Wien 72: 177-195.
Kasy, F., 1969. Vorläufige Revision der Gattung Ascalenia Wocke (Lepidoptera, Walshiidae). - Ann. naturhistor. Mus. Wien 73: 339-375.
Koster, J. C. & Sinev, S. Yu., 2003. Momphidae, Batrachedridae, Stathmopodidae, Agonoxenidae, Chrysopeleiidae, Cosmopterigidae. - In: Huemer, P., Karsholt, O. & Lyneborg, L. (eds). Microlepidoptera of Europe 5: 1-387. Stenstrup.
Malicky, H. & Sobhian, R., 1971. Untersuchungen über Bionomie, Präimaginalstadien und Verbreitung der europäischen Sorhagenia-Arten. - Beitr. Ent. 21: 179-190.
Riedl, T., 1962. Beitrag zur Kenntnis der paläarktischen Momphidae (Lepidoptera), 1. Sorhagenia rhamniella (Zell.) und zwei neue europaische Arten der Gattung Sorhagenia Spul. - Polsk. Pismo ent. 32 (1): 69-75.
Riedl, T., 1969. Matériaux pour la connaissance des Momphidae paléarctiques (Lepidoptera), 9. Revue des Momphidae européennes, y compris quelques espèces d'Afrique du Nord et du Proche-Orient. - Polsk. Pismo ent. 39 (4): 635-919.
Sinev, S. Yu., 1986. A list of the narrow-winged moths (Lepidoptera, Momphidae s.l.) in the fauna of the USSR. - Trudy Vses. ent. Obshch. 67: 19-74.
Sinev, S. Yu., 1993. A review of the narrow-winged moths of the genus Sorhagenia Spul. (Lepidoptera, Chrysopeleiidae) in the Palaearctic fauna. - Trudy Zool. Inst., St. Petersburg 255: 42-63.
Sinev, S. Yu., 2002. Morphological principles for the revision of taxonomic structure of the narrow-winged gelechioid moths (Lepidoptera: Gelechioidea). - Proc. Zool. Inst., St. Petersburg 296: 125-134.

 

Gelechiidae
Ole Karsholt

The Gelechiidae is a large family with about 4,500 described species in about 500 genera (Hodges, 1999). It is distributed worldwide, and well represented in Europe with 731 species. Most gelechiids can be recognized by having the outer margin of the hindwing excavated posterad of apex.
Gelechiidae have traditionally been considered difficult to identify, but during recent years identification literature for some areas like Central Europe (Elsner et al., 1999) or Great Britain (Bland et al., 2002), or for larger taxonomic groups like the Teleiodini & Gelechiini (Huemer & Karsholt, 1999) or Gnorimoschemini (Povolny, 2002; Huemer & Karsholt, in prep.) have become available.
The gelechiid fauna of a number of countries has been listed in the country checklists for these countries, and for Romania a separate list of the Gelechiidae of that country is available (Kovacs & Kovacs, 2000).
A number of still undescribed species are known, especially from some areas of the Mediterranean region or in south-eastern Russia.

I am grateful to Alexey Bidzilya, Kiev, Ukrainia; Jaroslaw Buszko, Torun, Poland; Gustav Elsner, Prag, Czech Republic; Willy De prins, Antwerpen, Belgium and Zdenko Tokár, Michalovce, Slovakia for providing data on Gelechiidae from their respective countries.

References
Bland, K. P., Corley, M. F. V., Emmet, A. M., Heckford, A. M., Heckford, R. J., Huemer, P., Langmaid, J. R., Palmer, S. M., Parsons, M. S., Pitkin, L. M., Sattler, K. & Simpson, A. N. B., 2002. Gelechiinae. - In: Emmet, A. M. & Langmaid, J. R. (eds): The moths and butterflies of Great Britain and Ireland. 4 (2) 118-204. Colchester, Exxes.
Elsner, G., Huemer, P. & Tokár, Z., 1999. Die Palpenmotten (Lepidoptera, Gelechiidae) Mitteleuropas. Bestimmung - Verbreitung - Flugstandort - Lebensweise der Raupen. - 208 pp. Bratislava.
Hodges, R. W., 1999. The Gelechioidea. - In: Kristensen, N.P. (ed.), Lepidoptera, Moths and Butterflies, 1: Evolution, Systematics, and Biogeography. Handbuch der Zoologie 4 (35): 91-117. Walter de Gruyter. Berlin, New York.
Huemer, P. & Karsholt, O., 1999 Gelechiidae 1 (Gelechiinae: Teleiodini, Gelechiini). - In: P. Huemer, O. Karsholt & L. Lyneborg (eds): Microlepidoptera of Europe 3:1-356.
Huemer, P. & Karsholt, O., in prep. Gelechiidae 2 (Gelechiinae: Gnorimoschemini). - In: P. Huemer, O. Karsholt & L. Lyneborg (eds): Microlepidoptera of Europe 6.
Kovacs, Z. & Kovacs, S., 2000. The commented checklist of Gelechiidae (Lepidoptera) of Romania. - Entomologica romania 4: 11-44.
Povolny, D., 2002. Iconographia tribus Gnorimoschemini (Lepidoptera, Gelechiidae) Regionis Palaearcticae. - 110 pp., 16 colour pls., 87 pls. Bratislava.

 

Epipyropidae
Antonio Vives Moreno

A curious small family with ca. 40 known species, mostly tropical, just two in Europe. Larvae ectoparasitic on Homoptera.

 

Somabrachyidae
Ole Karsholt

The Somabrachyidae is a very small family with 2-3 genera and a few species occurring in Africa. The occurrence of a single species (Somabrachys aegrota) in Spain (de Freina & Witt, 1990) needs confirmation. For a more detailed discussion on biology and morphology see Fänger & Fänger (2000).

References
Fänger, K. & Fänger, H., 2000. Life history, morphology and taxonomy of Somabrachys aegrota (Klug, 1830) in Tunisia (Lepidoptera: Somabrachyidae). - Entomologische-Zeitschrift 110: 73-78.
Freina, J. J. de & Witt, T. J., 1990. Die Bombyces und Sphinges der Westpalaearktis (Insecta, Lepidoptera), 2. - Forschung & Wissenschaft, München, 140 pp.

 

Limacodidae
Ole Karsholt

The Limacodidae is a mainly tropical group with about 1000 described species (Epstein et al., 1999). Only 4 species occur in Europe, but in addition larvae of some tropical species are introduced from time to time with ornamental plants etc. These may be colourful, with strong hairs or thorns, and sometimes poisonous.
The distribution in Europe is, beside of country checklists, is based on de Freina & Witt (1990), who also figure the European species in colour.

References
Epstein, M. E., Geertsema, H., Naumann, C. M. & Tarmann, G. W., 1999. The Zygaenoidea. - In: Kristensen, N.P. (ed.), Lepidoptera, Moths and Butterflies, 1: Evolution, Systematics, and Biogeography. Handbuch der Zoologie 4 (35): 159-180. Walter de Gruyter. Berlin, New York.
Freina, J. J. de & Witt, T. J., 1990. Die Bombyces und Sphinges der Westpalaearktis (Insecta, Lepidoptera), 2. - Forschung & Wissenschaft, München, 140 pp.

 

Heterogynidae
Ole Karsholt

The Heterogynidae is a small family consisting of less than 10 species, occurring in the south-western Palaearctic region. The females are brachypterous and resemble the larva in habitus and coloration. The family was recently reviewed by de Freina (2003).

References
Freina, J. J. de, 2003. Zur Kenntnis der Biologie, Morphologie und Taxonomie von Heterogynis andalusica Daniel, 1966 sowie ergänzenden Bemerkungen zum Status von Heterogynis thomas Zilli, 1987 stat. rev. (Lepidoptera, Zygaenoidea, Heterogynidae). - Atalanta 34: 179-192.

 

Zygaenidae
Konstantin Efetov & Gerhard Tarmann

A family of couourfull diurnal moths, ca. 1000 species world-wide. The genus Zygaena is especially well studied in Europe.
The order of species of the subfamily Procridinae in the list is in accord with the last revisions of the group Efetov & Tarmann, 1999; Efetov, 2001b; Efetov, 2001c).

 

Brachodidae
Axel Kallies

The Brachodidae are a relatively small family that, together with the Clearwing moths (Sesiidae) and the Sun moths (Castniidae), form the superfamily Sesioidea (Minet 1991). The present concept of Brachodidae with two subfamilies, Brachodinae and Phycodinae, was established by Heppner (1981), but the monophyly of the family and its placement in the Sesioidea is still disputed. A probable family autapomorphy is the strong reduction or loss of the ventral arms of the laterocervicalia (Minet 1991).
The family comprises approximately 135 named species, distributed in all regions, except the Nearctic. The majority of the Palaearctic species belongs to the 'grass borers' of the genus Brachodes Guenée, 1845. About 40 species of Brachodes have been described from this region, most of them occurring in the xero-thermic steppe habitats of Asia Minor, the Middle East and Central Asia. Considering size and coloration, and even structural characters such as presence of proboscis and shape of antennae, Brachodes moths are diverse, although they display a very homogenous morphology of the genitalia.
Sampling of Brachodidae is hampered by the rapid flight of the mainly day flying adults and the endophagous, cryptic life of the larvae. The knowledge of the life cycle of Brachodes moths is still incomplete and the early stages have not been described in detail. All Brachodes appear to feed on the roots of various grasses (Poaceae), although this was shown only for two of the European species. Larvae of Brachodes appendiculata were found in the root system of Festuca (Gartner, 1864), and Brachodes pumila was bred from Stipa (Bartsch, pers. comm.).
Eleven species were listed for the fauna of Europe when it was last summarised by Heppner (1996). Lately, research on the Palearctic Brachodidae has intensified which resulted in the discovery of unrecorded species and the clarification of taxonomic problems (Kallies 1998, 2001, Kallies & Spatenka, 2002; Zagulajev 1999). The checklist of European Brachodidae now contains a total of 14 species. While the western part of Europe can be regarded as relatively well-explored, in far Eastern Europe the occurrence of additional and even undescribed species is conceivable, especially in the xero-thermic grasslands of southern Russia and on the Balkan Peninsula.

References
Bertaccini, E. & Fiumi, G., 2002. Bombici e Sfingi d'Italia. Volume 4: Lepidoptera: Sesioidea. - Stud. Nat. Rom. 181 pp.
Gartner, A., 1864. Lepidopterologisches. - Stettiner entomologische Zeitung 25: 155-160.
Heppner, J. B., 1981. Brachodidae. pp. 8-15. - In: Heppner, J. B., & W. D. Duckworth, Classification of the Superfamily Sesioidea (Lepidoptera: Ditrysia). - Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology 314: 1-144.
Heppner, J. B., 1996. Brachodidae. p. 125. - In: Karsholt, O. & Razowski, J. (eds), The Lepidoptera of Europe. A distributional checklist. - Apollo Books, Stenstrup. 380 pp.
Kallies, A., 1998. Erster Beitrag zur Kenntnis der palaearktischen Brachodidae Agenjo, 1966: Revision von Brachodes fallax mit Beschreibungen neuer zentralasiatischer Arten (Lepidoptera: Sesioidea). - Nota Lepidopterologica 21(3): 170-193.
Kallies, A., 2001. Revision of the Brachodes pumila (Ochsenheimer, 1808) species-group (Lepidoptera: Sesioidea). - Nota Lepidopterologica 24 (1/2): 7-19.
Kallies, A. & Spatenka, K., 2002. Four species of Brachodidae new to the fauna of Europe (Sesioidea). - Nota Lepidopterologica 25 (2/3): 155-160.
Minet, J., 1991. Tentative reconstruction of the ditrysian phylogeny (Lepidoptera: Glossata). - Entomologica Scandinavica 22: 69-95.
Zagulajev, A. K. 1999. New and little known moths (Lepidoptera: Thyrididae, Brachodidae) of the Fauna of Russia and neighboring territories 11. - Entomologicheskoe Obozrenie 78 (4) 896-909. [in Russian]

 

Sesiidae
Zdenek Laštuvka

The Sesiidae or clearwing moths are represented worldwide by about 1200 described species, 115 European species are treated here. The adults have elongate forewings, variously marked wing transparency and abdomen with yellow, red or white rings or margins. The creamy white larvae are endophagous, developing in roots, stems, trunks and limbs of herbaceous and woody plants. A conspicuous adaptation of clearwing moths is their Batesian mimicry, reflected not only in their characteristic morphology but also in their flight and other manifestations (Laštuvka & Laštuvka 2001).
Hierarchy and higher systematic categories accepted here follow Naumann (1971) with changes after Laštuvka & Laštuvka (2001). Classification of the family is after Laštuvka & Laštuvka (2001), the distributional data with minor changes after the same or Špatenka et al. (1999), who summarized published sources and unpublished records of many entomologists, to whom warm thanks are due also for their cooperation in the compilation of this database. There are especially M. Bakowski (Poznan), D. Bartsch (Stuttgart), E. Bertaccini (Roncadello), R. Bläsius (Eppelheim), E. Bettag (Dudenhofen), E. Blum (Neustadt/Wstr.), J. Cungs (Dudelange), C. Dutreix (Givry), M. Fibiger (Soro), G. Fiumi (Forli), T. Garrevoet (Antwerpen), O. Gorbunov (Moscow), the late D. Hamborg (Feldbach), A. Kallies (Berlin), O. Karsholt (Copenhagen), A. Laštuvka (Prostejov), A. Lingenhöle (Biberach), H. Malicky (Lunz), C. M. Naumann (Bonn), P. Parenzan (Palermo), M. Petersen (Pfungstadt), Ž. Predovnik (Polzela), the late C. Prola (Rome), F. Pühringer (Scharnstein), H. G. Riefenstahl (Hamburg), N. Ryrholm (Uppsala), T. Sobczyk (Hoyerswerda), K. Špatenka (Prague), I. Toševski (Belgrade) and S. Whitebread (Quincy). The faunistic data, fine distribution, details on the individual countries, in addition to the country checklists follow Prola & Beer (1991), Kucinic et al. (1997), Cungs (1998), Predovnik (2001, 2002) and Dutreix & Morel (2002).

References
Cungs, J., 1998. Beitrag zur Faunistik und Ökologie der Glasflugler (Lepidoptera, Sesiidae) im sudlichen Erzbecken Luxemburgs. - Bulletin de la Societé des Naturalistes Luxembourgeois 99: 165-186.
Dutreix, C. & M. Morel, 2002. Contribution a l'etude des sesies francaises: le peuplement du departement de la Saone-et-Loire (Bourgogne) (Lepidoptera, Sesiidae). - Bulletin de la Societé Entomologique de Mulhouse 58(1): 13-20.
Kucinic, M, B. Hrasovec, A. Bregovic& F. Perovic, 1997. Contribution to the knowledge of clearwing moths (Insecta, Lepidoptera, Sesiidae) in Croatia. - Natura Croatica 6(2): 275-284.
Laštuvka Z. & A. Laštuvka, 2001. The Sesiidae of Europe. - Apollo Books, Stenstrup, 245 pp.
Naumann C. M., 1971. Untersuchungen zur Systematik und Phylogenese der holarktischen Sesiiden (Insecta, Lepidoptera). - Bonner Zoologische Monographien 1: 1-190.
Predovnik, Z., 2001. Prispevek k poznavanju steklokrilcev (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae) v Sloveniji. Contribution to the knowledge of clearwing moths (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae) of Slovenia. - Acta Entomologica Slovenica 9 (2): 141-151.
Predovnik, Z., 2002. Nove najdbe steklokrilcev (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae) v. Sloveniji. New records of clearwing moths (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae) in Slovenia. -. Acta Entomologica Slovenica 10(2): 161-170.
Prola C. & S. Beer, 1995. I feromoni in lepidopterologie e per la conoscenza delle Sesiidae italiane. - Memorie della Società Entomologica Italiana, 73: 231-271.
Špatenka K., O. Gorbunov, Z. Laštuvka, I. Toševski & Y. Arita, 1999. Sesiidae - Clearwing moths. - Handbook of Palaearctic Macrolepidoptera. 1, 569 pp., 57 pls., Wallingford.

 

Castniidae
Ole Karsholt

The Castniidae is a relatively small family with less than 200 species (Edwards et al., 1999) of mainly tropical, diurnal moths. One species has recently been introduced to the south-western Mediterranean area, where the larva have become harmful as a borer of palm trunks (Sarto i Monteys, 2002).

References
Sarto i Monteys, V., 2002. The discovery, description and taxonomy of Paysandisia archon (Burmeister, 1880), a castniid species recently found in south-western Europe (Castniidae). - Nota Lepidopterologica 25: 3-15.
Edwards, E. D., Gentili, P., Horak, M., Kristensen, N. P. & Nielsen, E. S., 1999. The Cossoid/Sesioid Assemblage. - In: Kristensen, N.P. (ed.), Lepidoptera, Moths and Butterflies, 1: Evolution, Systematics, and Biogeography. Handbuch der Zoologie 4 (35): 181-197. Walter de Gruyter. Berlin, New York.

 

Cossidae
Ole Karsholt

The Cossidae is a family of about 700 species (Edwards et al., 1999), 23 of which have been recorded from Europe. The larvae live within trunks of trees or stems of plants, and a few are considered as pests. The adults are nocturnal.
Distribution data on Cossidae are, besides the country checklists, based on de Freina & Witt, 1990 and de Freina (1996).

References
Edwards, E. D., Gentili, P., Horak, M., Kristensen, N. P. & Nielsen, E. S., 1999. The Cossoid/Sesioid Assemblage. - In: Kristensen, N.P. (ed.), Lepidoptera, Moths and Butterflies, 1: Evolution, Systematics, and Biogeography. Handbuch der Zoologie 4 (35): 181-197. Walter de Gruyter. Berlin, New York.
de Freina, J. J. de, 1996. Cossidae. - In: Karsholt, O. & Razowski, J. (Eds.), The Lepidoptera of Europe. A distributional checklist: 129-130, 313. Apollo Books, Stenstrup.
Freina, J. J. de & Witt, T. J., 1990. Die Bombyces und Sphinges der Westpalaearktis (Insecta, Lepidoptera), 2. - Forschung & Wissenschaft, München, 140 pp.

 

Tortricidae
Leif Aarvik

Leaf-roller moths - family Tortricidae - is a well-defined group of moths forming a superfamily of its own. There are about 8500 described species (Brown 2002), which makes Tortricidae one of the larger Lepidoptera families. In Europe there are about 950 species. Tortricidae is well represented in cooler areas, for instance in Norway it is the largest Lepidoptera family. Most species occur in forested habitats, but also grassland and steppes are rich in species, in particular members of the tribe Cochylini and the genera Eucosma, Pelochrista and Dichrorampha prefer open habitats.

Tortricids are usually small to medium sized moths, and they can be recognised by their wing shape and pattern. They have more or less rectangular forewings, and the two large subfamilies Tortricinae and Olethreutinae have each their characteristic basic wing pattern. Tortricinae has the forewing basically with 3-4 transverse fasciae, which tend to be modified into lines, spots or blotches. In Olethreutinae the basic forewing pattern consists of costal strigulae, a dorsal spot and a speculum (mirror) near termen. This pattern is usually combined with transverse lines.

Larvae of many tortricid species live sheltered in a rolled leaf of the foodplant, hence the name of the family. In some genera larvae are borers in stems and roots. Still others feed on seeds, berries or fruit and may cause damage to crops. The codling moth, Cydia pomonella (Linnaeus, 1758), is the most serious pest species.

All the European species can be identified with the aid of Tortricidae of Europe (Razowski 2002, 2003). In 2001 the same author published a book dealing with all central European Tortricidae (Razowski 2001). Unfortunately there are quite a few mistakes in this book. A list of corrections was given by Agassiz (2002). Razowski's books have excellent illustrations of adults and genitalia.

Since the publication of the European catalogue (Razowski 1996), two important changes have been made in the taxonomy of the European Tortricidae:
1. The tribe Enarmoniini has become accepted (Horak 1999).
2. The genus Grapholita Treitschke has been reinstated as a good genus, distinct from Cydia Hübner (Komai 1999). In the same paper the validity of the tribe Grapholitini is confirmed.
In this period several species have been added to the European list, resulting mainly from discoveries of species already known outside Europe. Since 1996 12 species new to science have been described from Europe. Some species have disappeared from the list because they have been degraded to synonyms. These changes have been documented in the literature. In a few cases new synonyms have been communicated to me by specialists and have been adopted.
Generally Europe is well explored with the regards to Tortricidae. However, too little data are available from parts of the former Soviet Union: Ukraine, Moldova and southern Russia.

I thank Mr. Ole Karsholt, Copenhagen, and Dr. Erik J. van Nieukerken, Leiden, for help and advice during the work. I am grateful to the following persons who contributed with information on the fauna of Tortricidae in their respective countries: Dr. Joaquin Baixeras, Spain, Mr. David Agassiz, England, Dr. Stanislav Gomboc, Slovenia, Mr. Frans Groenen, Netherlands (also for Belgium, Spain and Luxembourg), Dr. Peter Huemer, Austria, Dr. Josef Jaros, Czech Republic, Mr. Urmas Jürivete, Estonia, Mr. Ole Karsholt, Denmark, Dr. Jaakko Kullberg, Finland, Mr. András Kun, Hungary, Mr. Lukasz Przybylowicz, Poland, Mr. Michael Shaffer, England (Channel Islands), Mr. Ivars Sulcs, Latvia, Mr. Ingvar Svensson, Sweden and Prof. Pasquale Trematerra, Italy.

References
Agassiz, D., 2002. Book review. - Nota Lepidopterologica 25: 152-154.
Brown, J.W., 2002. How many species of Tortricidae are there? - Torts. Newsletter of the Troop of Reputed Tortricid Systematists. 3: 1-2.
Horak, M., 1999. The Tortricoidea. - In: Kristensen, N.P. (ed.), Lepidoptera, Moths and Butterflies, 1: Evolution, Systematics, and Biogeography. Handbuch der Zoologie 4 (35): 199-215. Walter de Gruyter. Berlin, New York.
Komai, F., 1999. A taxonomic review of the genus Grapholita and allied genera (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) in the Palaearctic region. - Entomologica Scandinavica. Supplement 55: 1-226.
Razowski, J., 1996. Tortricidae. - In: Karsholt, O. & Razowski, J. (Eds.), The Lepidoptera of Europe. A distributional checklist: 130-157, 313-318. Apollo Books, Stenstrup.
Razowski, J., 2001. Die Tortriciden (Lepidoptera, Tortricidae) Mitteleuropas. - Frantisek Slamka, Bratislava. 319 pp., 24 col. plates.
Razowski, J., 2002. Tortricidae of Europe, 1. Tortricinae and Chlidanotinae. - Frantisek Slamka, Bratislava. 247 pp., 16 col. plates.
Razowski, J., 2003. Tortricidae of Europe, 2. Olethreutinae. - Frantisek Slamka, Bratislava. 301 pp., col. plates.

 

Choreutidae
Ole Karsholt & Erik J. van Nieukerken

A small family with a little more than 400 named species worldwide, of which 17 species are European. The adults are day-flying moths of 5-20 mm wingspan, rather broad wings, often with metallic markings. The family was long artificially associated with the Glyphipterigidae, and in the current handbook (Diakonoff 1986) both groups are still treated together. The Choreutidae have also been placed in the Sesioidea, but currently are regarded to form a superfamily of its own, with uncertain relationships to other Non-Obtectomeran Apoditrysia.
Larvae are leaf skeletonizers or rarely leafminers (Millieria) and feed on a number of families, including Rosaceae, Urticaceae, Moraceae, Lamiaceae, Asteraceae and Aristolochaceae. Choreutis pariana can be a pest on apple.
Taxonomy and faunistics largely follows Diakonoff (1986). In recent years we saw a number of unexpected new records for Europe of Anthophila abhasica, Prochoreutis solaris and Tebenna chingana (Budashkin 1997, Kerppola et al. 1987, Kurz & Huemer 2000). For the identification apart from Diakonoff's book, there is also a Finnish website: Choreutidae in Finland (in Pakkanen 2003) with nice pictures of adult moths.
In the nomenclature we do not follow Leraut (1997), who, without further explanation, used two forgotten and dubious names as senior synonyms for Prochoreutis myllerana and Tebenna pretiosana. Details are given under those species.

References
Budashkin, Yu. I., 1997. A new and little-known species of choreutid-moths (Lepidoptera, Choreutidae) from Altai, Caucasus and Crimea. - Zhurnal Ukrayins'kogo Entomologichnogo Tovaristva 3 (1): 13-18.
Diakonoff, A., 1986. Glyphipterigidae auctorum sensu lato (Glyphipterygidae sensu Meyrick, 1913), containing: Tortricidae: Hilarographini, Choreutidae, Brachodidae (partim), Immidae and Glyphipterigidae. - In: Amsel, H. G., Gregor, F., Reisser, H. & Roesler, R.-U., Microlepidoptera Palaearctica, Karlsruhe 7: 1-436, pls. 1-175.
Kerppola, S., I. Kontuniemi & L. Löfgren, 1987. Mikrotiedonannot 1986. Records on Finnish Microlepidoptera 1986. - Baptria 12 (4): 63-72.
Kurz, M. & Huemer, P., 2000. Erstnachweis von Anthophila abhasica Danilevsky, 1969, in den Alpen (Lepidoptera, Choreutidae). - Nachrichtenblatt der Bayerischen Entomologen 49 (3-4): 87-91.
Pertti Pakkanen, 2003. Kuvia ja havaintoja perhosista. Pictures and news about butterflies and moths in Finland. - http://www.dlc.fi/~peterpa/lepi/perhonen.htm

 

Urodidae
Erik J. van Nieukerken

A family of about 60 species, first assigned to Yponomeutoidea, but recognized as a separate family by Kyrki (1988), and now forming a superfamily of its own, with uncertain relationships to other Non-Obtectomeran Apoditrysia.
In Europe only the single species Wockia asperipunctella, a grey moth of about 18 mm wingspan, with rather broad and rounded wings. The larva skeletonizes the leaves of species of Populus and Salix (Salicaceae). Kyrki (1988) provided an extensive description of morphology, biology and distribution of this species.

Reference
Kyrki, J., 1988. The systematic position of Wockia Heinemann, 1870, and related genera (Lepidoptera: Ditrysia: Yponomeutidae auct.). - Nota Lepidopterologica 11 (1): 45-69.

 

Schreckensteiniidae
Erik J. van Nieukerken

The Schreckensteiniidae form a very small family with eight species in two genera, and only one species in Europe. The family forms a superfamily of its own, with uncertain relationships to other Non-Obtectomeran Apoditrysia.
The moths are narrow-winged and small. The widespread European Schreckensteinia festaliella feeds on leaves of Rubus.

 

Epermeniidae
R. Gaedike

A small family with 83 described species in all regions, forming a superfamily of its own (Epermenioidea). narrow winged moths, larvae often on Apiaceae, sometimes a minor pest.

 

Alucitidae
Cees Gielis

The Alucitidae comprise 22 species in Europe and 205 species globally.
The species are characterized by the five clefts in each wing, so that the wings give the impression of a bundle of small feathers.
The larvae feed on the flowers and seeds of Caprifoliaceae and Dipsacaceae, and others are stem borers. The are no records of economic damage caused by representatives of this family.
The knowledge of these moths is reasonable in western Europe, but poor in the Mediterranean and eastern parts of the continent. Species are poorly identified and many mistakes have been made in the past. For this reason older references are unreliable, making it difficult to be conclusive on the distribution. The knowledge of the biology is limited.
The identification of the species is predominantly to be done by genital examination. Good information on the family is given by Scholz & Jäckh (1994), but some smaller publications treating separate species are needed in addition. For the distribution and nomenclature Gielis (2003) may be used as a reference, also recalling a comprehensive literature list which covers all data reproduced here as well.

References
Gielis, C., 2003. World catalogue of Insects, 4: Pterophoroidea & Alucitoidea. - Apollo Books, Stenstrup, 198 pp.
Scholz, A. & Jäckh, E., 1994. Taxonomie und Verbreitung der westpaläarktischen Alucita-Arten. - Alexanor 18 Suppl.: [3]-[63].

 

Pterophoridae
Cees Gielis

The family Pterophoridae comprise approximately 163 species in Europe and 1139 globally.
The character defining the members of the family is a scale structure on the underside of the hind wings which follows veins M3 and CU2, called venous scales. Most species have cleft wings, once in the fore wing and twice in the hind wing, but this characteristic is not present in the subfamilies Agdistinae and Ochyroticinae.
Larvae feed predominantly on the flowers and seeds of Lamiaceae and Asteraceae, other plant families are less frequent hostplants, and some species feed as stem borers of Asteraceae.
The economic importance is limited to an occasional outbreak in cultivated roses and sometimes problematic infestations in artichokes.
The knowledge of the European fauna is high in the western half of the continent. The distribution in the eastern half of the continent and the eastern parts of the Mediterranean area need more attention, especially concerning the biology.
For the identification of the European species, the field guide by Gielis (1996) is practical, but some of the eastern European species are not treated in this work. These species are dealt with by Arenberger (1995, 2002) but these works are expensive, cover the entire palaearctic fauna, and some groups are not yet treated. For the distribution and nomenclature Gielis (2003) may be used as a reference, also recalling a comprehensive literature list which covers all data reproduced here as well.

References
Arenberger, E., 1995d. Microlepidoptera Palaearctica, 9: Pterophoridae. i-xxv, 1-258; plates 1-153. Braun, Karlsruhe.
Arenberger, E., 2002. Microlepidoptera Palaearctica, 11: Pterophoridae 2. 1-287; plates 1-96. Goecke & Evers, Keltern.
Gielis, C., 1996a. Pterophoridae. - In P. Huemer, O. Karsholt and L. Lyneborg (eds): Microlepidoptera of Europe 1: 1-222, Apollo Books, Stenstrup.
Gielis, C., 2003. World catalogue of Insects, 4: Pterophoroidea & Alucitoidea. - Apollo Books, Stenstrup, 198 pp.

 

Carposinidae
Ole Karsholt & Erik J. van Nieukerken

A rather small family with 273 named species worldwide, and only seven species treated here, of which five are endemic to the Macaronesian islands. The Carposinidae are currently considered to form the superfamily Copromorphoidea together with the possibly paraphyletic, non-European Copromorphidae.
The Carposinidae are middle-sized moths of about 10-25 mm wingspan, in appearance somewhat resembling Tortricidae or certain Pyraloidea. The larvae of the continental European species feed on berries of Rosa (Rosaceae) and Berberis (Berberidaceae); one of the Madeirean species feeds as a borer in twigs of Myrica faja Aiton (Myricaceae).
The basis for taxonomy and some faunistic records is Diakonoff (1989), who revised the Palaearctic species.

Reference
Diankonoff, A., 1989. Revision of the Palaearctic Carposinidae with description of a new genus and new species (Lepidoptera: Pyraloidea). - Zoölogische Verhandelingen 251: 1-155.

 

Thyrididae
Matthias Nuss, Andreas Segerer, & Wolfgang Speidel

The Thyrididae comprise 736 species world-wide (Heppner 1991), only one of which occurs in Europe. Comprehensive studies on this group have been carried out by Whalley (197a, b; 1976). The European Thyris fenestrella has been exhaustively treated and figured by Thiele (1994).

References
Heppner, J. B., 1991. Faunal regions and the diversity of Lepidoptera. - Tropical Lepidoptera 2, suppl. 1: 1-85.
Thiele, J., 1994. Thyrididae. - In: Ebert, G., Die Schmetterlinge Baden-Württembergs 3 (1): 505-514.
Whalley, P. E. S., 1971a. A revision of the genus Canaea Walker (Lepidoptera, Thyrididae). - Bulletin of the British Museum (Natural History) Entomology 26 (3): 161-179, pls. 1-12.
Whalley, P. E. S., 1971b. The Thyrididae (Lepidoptera) of Africa and its islands. - Bulletin of the British Museum (Natural History) Entomology suppl. 17: 1-198, pls. 1-68.
Whalley, P. E. S., 1976. Tropical Leaf Moths. A monograph of the subfamily Striglinae (Lepidoptera, Thyrididae). - Trustees of the British Museum (Natural History), London. 194 pp., 68 pls.

 

Pyralidae
Matthias Nuss, Andreas Segerer, & Wolfgang Speidel

The Pyralidae comprise 4359 species world-wide (Heppner 1991), 447 of which are known from Europe. Pyralidae are one of the two families of Pyraloidea (cf. Crambidae). The superfamily is characterised by the following features: (i) a basally scaled proboscis, (ii) forewing veins R3 and R4 stalked together or fused, (iii) hindwing veins Sc+R1 and Rs approximated or anastomosed, and (iv) the presence of a paired tympanal organ situated ventrally in the 2nd abdominal segment, enabling the moths to detect the ultrasounds of insectivorous bats.
The Pyralidae s. str. are characterised e.g. by (i) the absence of a praecinctorium, (ii) the tympanum and conjunctivum lying in the same plane, and (iii) bullae tympani being closed cephalad. The most speciose pyralid group is the subfamily Phycitinae. They are difficult to distinguish and the taxonomic and faunistic research for the European species is ongoing and by no means complete, though Roesler (1973, 1993) treated a large part of the palaearctic fauna and published a number of papers.

References
Heppner, J. B., 1991. Faunal regions and the diversity of Lepidoptera. - Tropical Lepidoptera 2, suppl. 1: 1-85.
Roesler, R.-U., 1973. Phycitinae. 1. Teilband - Trifine Acrobasiina. - In: Amsel, H. G., Gregor, F. & Reisser, H., Microlepidoptera Palaearctica, Wien 4: i-xvi, 1-752, 1-137 pp., pl. 1-170.
Roesler, R.-U., 1993. Quadrifine Acrobasiina. 2. Teilband der Phycitinae. - In: Amsel, H. G., Gregor, F., Reisser, H. & Roesler, R.-U., Microlepidoptera Palaearctica, Karlsruhe 8: i-xxii, 1-305, pl. 1-82.

 

Crambidae
Matthias Nuss, Andreas Segerer, & Wolfgang Speidel

The Crambidae comprise 11,539 species world-wide (Heppner 1991), 468 of which are known from Europe. Crambidae comprise one of the two families of Pyraloidea (cf. Pyralidae). The family is characterised e. g. by (i) the presence of a praecinctorium, (ii) the tympanum and conjunctivum lying in a blunt angle, and bullae tympani being open cephalad. The first subfamilies of the group are currently treated in the series Microlepidoptera of Europe. The Crambinae have been treated by Bleszynski (1965) for the entire Palearctic Region.

References
Bleszynski, S., 1965. Crambinae. - In: H. G. Amsel, F. Gregor & H. Reisser, Microlepidoptera Palaearctica, Wien 1: i-l, 1-553, pls. 1-133.
Heppner, J. B., 1991. Faunal regions and the diversity of Lepidoptera. - Tropical Lepidoptera 2, suppl. 1: 1-85.

 

Lasiocampidae
Vadim Zolotuhin & Erik J. van Nieukerken

A family of about 1500 species worldwide, and 43 species recorded here, some of which have more than one subspecies in Europe. The moths have usually stout and hairy bodies, are broad winged and the males have bipectinate antennae; the size varies from rather small to big, in Europe ca 2-10 cm wingspan. The proboscis is usually reduced or absent, and the moths therefore do not feed. A few species have wingless females.
The caterpillars are hairy and feed on a large number of plants, and are usually polyphagous. Some are living gregariously in nets (Malacosoma spp.) and are called tent-caterpillars. Some are notorious pests, such as Malacosoma neustria on many species of trees.
The Lasiocampidae form together with the Anthelidae the superfamily Lasiocampoidea, which is probably related tot the Bombycoidea (Lemaire & Minet 1999).
Identification of the European species is relatively easy with de Freina & Witt (1987) or Rougeot & Viette (1978) and a number of more local guides.
As sources for the taxonomy and distribution we used de Freina & Witt (1987), Zolotuhin (1992) and Dubatolov & Zolotuhin (1992).

References
Dubatolov V.V. & Zolotuhin V.V., 1992. A list of the Lasiocampidae (Lepidoptera) from the territory of the former USSR. - Atalanta 23 (3/4): 531-548.
Freina, J. J. de & Witt, T. J., 1987. Die Bombyces und Sphinges der Westpalaearktis (Insecta, Lepidoptera), 1. - Forschung & Wissenschaft, München.
Lemaire, C. & Minet, J., 1999. The Bombycoidea and their relatives. - In: Kristensen, N.P. (ed.), Lepidoptera, Moths and Butterflies, 1: Evolution, Systematics, and Biogeography. Handbuch der Zoologie 4 (35): 321-353. Walter de Gruyter. Berlin, New York.
Rougeot, P.-C. & Viette, P., 1978. Guide des papillons nocturned d'europe et d'Afrique du Nord, Héterocères (partim). - Les Guides du Naturaliste, Delachaux et Niestlé, Neuchâtel, Paris. 228 pp.
Zolotuhin, V. V., 1992. An annotated checklist of the Lasiocampidae of "European Russia"(Lepidoptera).- Atalanta 23 (3/4): 519-529

 

Endromidae
Ole Karsholt & Wolfgang Nässig

The Endromidae includes only the single European species, Endromis versicolora L., a spectacular moth, with the male flying during daytime. This sexual difference in the activity patterns correlates with a well-expressed sexual dimorphism of the moths. Its distribution ranges across most of cold-temperate Eurasia to the eastern Palaearctic. Its larva feeds on Betula and other deciduous trees, usually members of the Betulaceae family. The population of E. versicolora from the Caucasus and Asia minor is presently treated as a separate subspecies, eichleri, with both sexes being nocturnal and, accordingly, a very unspectacular sexual dimorphism only. This taxon may prove to represent a separate second species of the genus.
The Mirinidae are included in this family by some authors.

References
Lemaire, C. & Minet, J., 1999. The Bombycoidea and their relatives. - In: Kristensen, N.P. (ed.), Lepidoptera, Moths and Butterflies, 1: Evolution, Systematics, and Biogeography. Handbuch der Zoologie 4 (35): 159-180. Walter de Gruyter. Berlin, New York.

 

Mirinidae
Vadim Zolotuhin & Erik J. van Nieukerken

A very small family with a few species in the genus Mirina (Zolotuhin & Witt 2000), belonging tot the superfamily Bombycoidea. The moths resemble superficially Lasiocampidae. Caterpillars feed on Lonicera (Caprifoliaceae).
In Europe only known from a single specimen of Mirina christophi from Bashkiria (Central Ural Mts.) in the Zoological Institute of St.Petersburg (Dayanov 1981). It is well possible that this was an accidental introduction and not a native occurrence.

References
Dayanov, V.I., 1981. Nakhozhedenie Mirina christophi Stgr. (Lepidoptera, Endromidae) na Yuzhnom Urale. (Record of Mirina christophi Stgr. in South Ural). - Trudy Zoologicheskogo Instituta 103: 116.
Zolotuhin, V.V., Witt, T.J., 2000. The Mirinidae of Vietnam. - Entomofauna Supplement 11: 13-24.

 

Saturniidae
Ole Karsholt & Wolfgang Nässig

The Saturniidae contain at least 1500 species in over 165 genera, occurring especially in the tropics (Lemaire & Minet, 1999), with a clear focus in the Neotropics. The family has only few representatives in Europe. The adults are medium-sized to large, often colourful moths, many with spectacular eye-spots on the wings. Larvae of most taxa are covered with characteristic scoli and often also with hairs and spiny bristles. Many of them pupate in a silken cocoon, and some species are used for silk production (producing the so-called "wild silks"). The monophyly of the family is still challenged by some authors; there is only one character which appears to be a reliable synapomorphy: the quadrupectinate antenna at least in the males (being secondarily reduced in a few groups and possibly lacking primarily in a few others). Most of the species are forest-dwelling which probably represents the primary habitat of this family, but there are also species specialized on many other types of habitat. One of the two subfamilies of Saturniidae found in Europe, the Agliinae, is represented by one species, A. tau, only. The Agliinae (with two more species in the eastern Palaearctic) are most closely related to three subfamilies restricted to the New World and being very numerous there: the Arsenurinae, Ceratocampinae and Hemileucinae. The other European Saturniidae are members of the nominotypical subfamily Saturniinae, the only subfamily found on all continents except Antarctica.

References
Lemaire, C. & Minet, J., 1999. The Bombycoidea and their Relatives. - In: Kristensen, N.P. (ed.), Lepidoptera, Moths and Butterflies, 1: Evolution, Systematics, and Biogeography. Handbuch der Zoologie 4 (35): 159-180. Walter de Gruyter. Berlin, New York.

 

Lemoniidae
Ole Karsholt & Wolfgang Nässig

The Lemoniidae are a small family with about 20 species in two genera, restricted to the Old World. Larvae of Lemonia (confined to Eurasia and northern Africa) feed mainly on different Asteraceae and pupate in the ground. The males are often day-flying (Lemaire & Minet, 1999). Most of the species are found on meagre, often hot and dry open land. The second genus, Sabalia, is confined to Africa south of the Sahara and only doubtfully integrated into the family.

References
Lemaire, C. & Minet, J., 1999. The Bombycoidea and their Relatives. - In: Kristensen, N.P. (ed.), Lepidoptera, Moths and Butterflies, 1: Evolution, Systematics, and Biogeography. Handbuch der Zoologie 4 (35): 159-180. Walter de Gruyter. Berlin, New York.

 

Brahmaeidae
Ole Karsholt & Wolfgang Nässig

The Brahmaeidae are a small, but rather spectacular family of mostly big moths with about 20 species in four genera, restricted to the Old World (Lemaire & Minet, 1999). Most of the species share a special wing pattern resembling willow-weaved baskets, and most of the larvae show extraordinarily long, thin and characteristically bent soft scoli at least in young instars. The single European species Brahmaea europaea is endemic to the Mte Vulture area in southern Italy and probably represents an old Tertiary relict species. It has some special adaptations to its environment and life habits, such as spines encircling the pupal abdominal segments. These rings of spines are used by the pupae while rotating their abdominal segments to crawl out of the pupal chamber just before the hatching of the moths.

References
Lemaire, C. & Minet, J., 1999. The Bombycoidea and their Relatives. - In: Kristensen, N.P. (ed.), Lepidoptera, Moths and Butterflies, 1: Evolution, Systematics, and Biogeography. Handbuch der Zoologie 4 (35): 159-180. Walter de Gruyter. Berlin, New York.

 

Sphingidae
Ian Kitching

The Sphingidae is a family of about 1300 species of medium-sized to very large moths with a primarily tropical distribution. Forty species in 19 genera are recognized here as occurring in Europe. However, Polyptychus trisecta (Aurivillius) has been recorded from only a single specimen captured in Gibraltar and Hippotion osiris (Dalman) is a rare stray into southern Spain. Both are otherwise sub-saharan African species. The type locality of a third species, Theretra boisduvalii (Bugnion), was given as Crete, but this must be considered highly doubtful because there are no confirmed records of this southeast Asian species west of India. The remaining 37 species have resident breeding populations in some part of Europe, although many are migratory and can be found on occasion well outside these core areas. The classification adopted here, and the criteria applied to the recognition of species and subspecies, are those discussed and justified by Kitching & Cadiou (2000). An alternative system, advocated by Eitschberger and associates (i.e. Danner et al., 1998), would recognize many more species and subspecies. However, these taxa are often based on characters that are environmentally or individually variable. In this system, for example, Smerinthus kindermannii is divided into numerous subspecies differing solely in the intensity and contrast of the wing pattern. However, experiments have shown that these differences can be induced simply by varying the temperature experienced by the pupal stage and thus the "subspecies" are just environmentally induced colour forms. Adoption of Eitschberger's concepts would lead to the recognition of a large number of named taxa of dubious utility and biological validity, and to general rank inflation within the family, and it is therefore rejected.

References
Danner, F., U. Eitschberger & B. Surholt, 1998. Die Schwärmer der westlichten Palaearktis : Bausteine zu einer Revision : (Lepidoptera: Sphingidae). - Herpiboliana 4 (1 + 2). Marktleuthen : Eitschberger.
Kitching, I. & J.-M. Cadiou, 2000. Hawkmoths of the world : an annotated and illustrated revisionary checklist (Lepidoptera: Sphingidae). - Ithaca, NY [etc.], Cornell University Press [etc.]. 226 p.

 

Axiidae
Ole Karsholt

The Axiidae is a very small family of broad winged, brightly coloured moths. It includes 6 species in two genera, distributed in the western Palaearctic region (Minet, 1999). The distribution data on Axiidae are mainly based on de Freina & Witt (1987).

References
Freina, J. J. de & Witt, T. J., 1987. Die Bombyces und Sphinges der Westpalaearktis (Insecta, Lepidoptera), 1. - Forschung & Wissenschaft, München.
Minet, J., 1999. The Axioidea and Calliduloidea. - In: Kristensen, N.P. (ed.), Lepidoptera, Moths and Butterflies, 1: Evolution, Systematics, and Biogeography. Handbuch der Zoologie 4 (35): 257-261. Walter de Gruyter. Berlin, New York.

 

Drepanidae
Ole Karsholt

The Drepanidae is a family with about 500 species worldwide (Minet & Scoble, 1999), 17 of which occur in Europe. The European species are divided into two subfamilies, the relatively slender-winged Thyatirinae and the geometrid-like Drepanidae, both of which have traditionally been given family status. The larvae of most species feed on leaves of deciduous tress. The adults are nocturnal.
Subspecies are not considered in the Drepanidae.
Distribution data on Drepanidae are, besides country checklists, based on de Freina & Witt (1987) and Schintlmeister (1996).

References
Freina, J. J. de & Witt, T. J., 1987. Die Bombyces und Sphinges der Westpalaearktis (Insecta, Lepidoptera), 1. - Forschung & Wissenschaft, München.
Minet, J. & Scoble, M. J., 1999. The Drepanoid/Geometroid Assemblage. - In: Kristensen, N.P. (ed.), Lepidoptera, Moths and Butterflies, 1: Evolution, Systematics, and Biogeography. Handbuch der Zoologie 4 (35): 301-320. Walter de Gruyter. Berlin, New York.
Schintlemeister, A., 1996. Drepanidae. - In: Karsholt, O. & Razowski, J. (Eds.), The Lepidoptera of Europe. A distributional checklist: 217-218, 329. Apollo Books, Stenstrup.

 

Uraniidae
Ole Karsholt

The Uraniidae is family with about 700 described species, divided into four subfamilies: Auzeinae, Epipleminae, Microniinae, and Uraniinae (Minet & Scoble, 1999). Only the Epipleminae has been found in Europe, with one species only. Hindwings of Epipleminae often have acute teeth or short tails on termen. Data on the occurrence of Eversmannia extornata in Latvia was kindly provided by Nikolaj Savenkov, Riga, Latvia.

References
Minet, J. & Scoble, M. J., 1999. The Drepanoid/Geometroid Assemblage. - In: Kristensen, N.P. (ed.), Lepidoptera, Moths and Butterflies, 1: Evolution, Systematics, and Biogeography. Handbuch der Zoologie 4 (35): 301-320. Walter de Gruyter. Berlin, New York.

 

Geometridae
Axel Hausmann, Vladimir Mironov, & Jaan Viidalepp

The geometrid moths are one of the largest families of Lepidoptera, with about 21,000 described species in the world (catalogued by Scoble 1999, see also The Global Lepidoptera Names Index). In Europe 957 species are recorded. The number amounts to 1,027 species when including also the adjacent areas that are taken into consideration in the FaEu programme.

The knowledge about this family has to be considered as very good, yet the list of Müller (1996) provides an almost complete survey on the species set (96% of the species reported here) and a very good basis information about distribution. Hence, special thanks must be addressed to Dr. Bernd Müller, Berlin, for his great pioneer work. With this updated list, 42 species are recorded for Europe, that are not included in the former list.

From 1996 on a working group started to prepare manuscripts for the book series 'The Geometrid moths of Europe', to be published by Apollo Books, Stenstrup (contact: Peder Skou ). The first volume has appeared in 2001 (Hausmann, 2001), the fourth one in 2003 (Mironov, 2003). Two further volumes are on the verge of publication (Viidalepp, 2003; Hausmann, 2004). All achievements concerning coordination, collection of data and publications revealed to be extremely useful also for the FaEu programme. The herewith presented data have been provided, compiled and controlled by the author of these lines. In the subfamily Larentiinae two colleagues kindly helped (Perizomini and Eupitheciini: Dr. V. Mironov, St. Petersburg; rest of Larentiinae: Dr. J. Viidalepp, Tartu). The four volumes of 'Geometrid Moths of Europe' give further detailed information and refined distribution maps, that facilitated definition of fine distribution, e.g. in the former Soviet Union or the former Yugoslavia. In addition to the literature references that are cited here in this database, there is almost in all cases additional evidence of distribution in the various countries and regional sub-units from controlled collection specimens, published in the first four volumes of the GME series.

When distribution was already reported in Müller (1996), this is not (redundantly) mentioned here as source. However, sources for all the differences and additions to the country list of Müller (1996) are accurately specified.

We would like to express our thankfulness to Ole Karsholt, Copenhagen, and Erik van Nieukerken, Leiden, who kindly assisted in all kind of technical and organisational problems, and, furthermore, by providing valuable literature.

References
Hausmann, A., 2001. The Geometrid moths of Europe, 1. Introduction, Archiearinae, Orthostixinae, Desmobathrinae, Alsophilinae, Geometrinae. - Apollo Books, Stenstrup. 282 pp.
Hausmann, A., 2004. The Geometrid moths of Europe, 2. Sterrhinae. - Apollo Books, Stenstrup. 600 pp.
Müller, B., 1996. Geometridae. - In: Karsholt, O. & Razowski, J. (Eds.), The Lepidoptera of Europe. A distributional checklist: 218-249, 329-332. Apollo Books, Stenstrup.
Mironov, V., 2003. The Geometrid moths of Europe, 4. Larentinae II. - Apollo Books, Stenstrup. 464 pp.
Scoble, M. J., 1999. Geometrid moths of the world, a catalogue. - CSIRO, Collingwood & Apollo Books, Stenstrup. 1400 pp.
Viidalepp, J., 2003. The Geometrid moths of Europe, 3. Larentinae I. - Apollo Books, Stenstrup. 600 pp.

 

Notodontidae
Alexander Schlintlmeister

The Notodontidae is a rather well-known family, distributed world-wide. Approximately 3,500 species are known. Kiriakoff gives several systematic accounts of the species, particularly in his catalogues (Kiriakoff 1964, 1967, 1968). Kiriakoff (1967) introduced with regards to the European species an unnecessarily high number of genera, splitting most groups into monotypic genera. Miller (1991) used a cladistic analysis for a reclassification of the Notodontidae. His analysis, however, (made for 52 species) lead to some less likely results, e.g. he placed the very closely related genera Notodonta and Peridea into different subfamilies (the latter in the Phalerinae) or he combined Spatalia with Stauropus in one subfamily (Heterocampidae). Therefore, I will not follow his classification, but follow my own system, which I introduced in 1985 with some modifications (Schintlmeister 1985, 1989, Schintlmeister et al. 1987, Schintlmeister & Fang 2001). The European species are easily identifiable with de Freina & Witt (1987).

References
Freina, J. J. de & Witt, T. J., 1987. Die Bombyces und Sphinges der Westpalaearktis (Insecta, Lepidoptera), 1. - Forschung & Wissenschaft, München.
Kiriakoff, S. G., 1964. Lepidoptera Familia Notodontidae 1. Genera Aethiopica et Malgassica In: P. Wytsman (ed.) Genera Insectorum 217 A. 213pp. + 11pls. - Crainhem.
Kiriakoff, S. G. , 1967. Lepidoptera Familia Notodontidae 2. Genera Palaearctica. In: P. Wytsman (ed.) Genera Insectorum 217 B. 238pp. + 7pls. - Kraainem.
Kiriakoff, S. G., 1968. Lepidoptera Familia Notodontidae 3. Genera Indo-Australica. In: P.Wytsman (ed.) Genera Insectorum 217 C. 269pp. + 11pls. - Kraainem.
Miller, J. S., 1991. Cladistics and classification of the Notodontidae (Lepidoptera: Noctuoidea) based on larval and adult morphology. - Bulletin of the American Museum natural History 204: 1-230.
Schintlmeister, A., 1985. Beitrag zur Systematik und Klassifikation der europäischen Notodontidae (Lepidoptera, Notodontidae). - Deutsche entomologische Zeitschrift N.F., 32: 43-54.
Schintlmeister, A., 1986. Zur Evolution mediterraner Faunenelemente unter den Notodontidae. - Nota lepidopterologica 9: 249-255.
Schintlmeister, A., V. V. Dubatolov, A. V. Sviridov, A. Yu. Tshistjakov & J. Viidalepp, 1987. Verzeichnis und Verbreitung der Notodontidae der UdSSR (Lepidoptera). - Nota lepidopterologica 10: 94 - 111.
Schintlmeister, A & Ch. L. Fang (2001. New and less known Notodontidae from mainland China (Insecta, Lepidoptera, Notodontidae) - Neue Entomologische Nachrichten 50: 1-143.

 

Thaumetopoeidae
Alexander Schlintlmeister

The Thaumetopoeidae was established as a subfamily of the Notodontidae and later raised to family rank. Kiriakoff (1970) gives a catalougue of the family. Miller (1991) treats this group again as a subfamily but noted: "Additional synapomorphies are needed for this subfamily." In my opinion the Thaumetopeidae form a well-defined monophyletic group (also by their bionomy), which is more related to the Lymantriidae (Nygmiini) than to the Notodontidae, particularly if one looks at the Asiatic members of these families. The Australian group is isolated and not closely related to the European Thaumetopeidae.
The Thaumetopeidae are a relatively small family (about 100 species) distributed world wide, except in the Americas.
The few European species can be identified with de Freina & Witt (1987).

References
Freina, J. J. de & Witt, T. J., 1987. Die Bombyces und Sphinges der Westpalaearktis (Insecta, Lepidoptera), 1. - Forschung & Wissenschaft, München.
Kiriakoff, S. G., 1970. Lepidoptera Familia Thaumetopoeidae. - In: P. Wytsman (ed.) Genera Insectorum 219. 54pp. + 3pls. - Kraainem.
Miller, J. S., 1991. Cladistics and classification of the Notodontidae (Lepidoptera: Noctuoidea) based on larval and adult morphology. - Bulletin of the American Museum natural History 204: 1-230.

 

Lymantridae
Alexander Schlintlmeister

The Lymantriidae was first separated under other names (mostly basing on invalid nominal genus names). From the late 20th century onwards the name Lymantriidae has become in common use. The Lymantriidae are of a high economic importance as pests of various argricultural monocultures in Europe and outside Europe (e.g. the gipsy moth, Lymantria dispar).
The family urgently needs a systematic revision. The European members of the genus Lymantria for instance do not form a monophyletic clade. Furthermore, the last existing catalogue (Bryk, 1934) gives no system but is a compilation of described taxa (often in alphabetical order). Holloway (1999) grouped the Lymantriidae into 5 tribes; all of them present in Europe. The knowledge of the taxa outside Europe is rather poor, hitherto over 3000 species were described, but the actual number is probably much higher. Schintlmeister (in preparation) recognized in the genus Lymantria, probably the best-known genus in the Lymantriidae, about 65 valid taxa in the rank of subspecies or species. Of them 40% are new to science or were recently described. Holloway (1999) listed 80 species of Arctornis for Borneo, of which 43 new. In South and North America only a few species of the family occur.
The European species are usually well-known, with the exception of the genus Orgyia. They can be identified with de Freina & Witt (1987).

References
Bryk, F., 1934. In E. Strand (ed.). Lepidopterorum Katalogus 62, Lymantriidae. - Junk, Berlin, 441pp.
Freina, J. J. de & Witt, T. J., 1987. Die Bombyces und Sphinges der Westpalaearktis (Insecta, Lepidoptera), 1. - Forschung & Wissenschaft, München.
Holloway, J. D., 1999. The Moths of Borneo 5: Lymantriidae. Malayan Nature Journal 53: 1-188, 75 pls., Kuala Lumpur.

 

Noctuidae
Michael Fibiger & Bjarne Skule

The Noctuidae forms the largest family of Lepidoptera with about 35,000 described species in more than 4,200 genera (Kitching & Rawlins, 1999). The real number of species is probably close to 50,000. It is distributed World wide, but represented in Europe only with approx. 1450 species. It is traditionally divided into two large groups, the trifid and the quadrifid noctuids, - referring to the number of veins from the lower part of the hindwing midcell. The trifine Noctuidae is regarded as monophyletic, whereas the quadrifine Noctuidae is paraphyletic (perhaps polyphyletic). Most of the 32 subfamilies are monophyletic. In this huge and diverse family many noctuids can superficially be recogniced by the generally robust body, and with a reniform and an orbicular marking most often present on each forewing. Many species-groups of Noctuidae have traditionally been considered difficult to identify, but during recent years a more and more up-to-date faunistic litterature and new identification guides for the European fauna have been published alongside numerous articles. Examples on parts of Europe which are treated in books are: The Nordic countries (Finland, Sweden, Norway and Denmark) by Skou (1991); Greece by Hacker (1989); Bulgaria by Beshkov (2000); Romania by Rakosy (1996); Spain by Calle (1983); Great Britain and Ireland by Bretherton et al. (1979, 1983) and Bretherton (1983); Italy by Berio (1985, 1991); the Macaronesian Islands by Hacker (1996); Cyprus by Fibiger, Nilsson & Svendsen (1999); Ural Mountains by Nupponen & Fibiger (2002). The larvae of the Noctuidae are described by Beck (1999; 2000). In Noctuidae Europaea (Fibiger 1990, 1993, 1997, Goater et al. 2003, Hacker et al. 2002, Ronkay et al. 2001, Ronkay & Ronkay 1994, 1995), all previously known information has been accumulated and extended in details.

References
Beck, H., 1999-2000. Die Larven der Europäischen Noctuidae. - Herbipoliana 5, 1: 447 pp.; 2: 859 pp.; 3: 336 pp.; 4: 512 pp..
Berio, F., 1985. Lepidoptera. Noctuidae 1. Generalitá, Hadeninae, Cucullinae. - Fauna d'Italia, 22. Edizioni Calderina. Bologna.
Berio, F., 1991. Lepidoptera. Noctuidae 2, Sezione Quadrifide. - Fauna d'Italia, 26. Edizioni Calderina. Bologna.
Beshkov, S. V., 2000. An annotated systematic and synonymic checklist of the Noctuidae of Bulgaria (Insecta, Lepidoptera, Noctuidae). Neue Entomologische Nachrichten 49: 1-300.
Bretherton, R. F., 1983. Agaristidae. - In: J. Heath & A. M. Emmet (eds.), The Moths and Butterflies of Great Britain and Ireland, 10: 414. Harley, Colchester.
Bretherton, R. F., B. Goater & R. I. Lorimer, 1979. Noctuidae. - In: J. Heath & A. M. Emmet (eds.), The Moths and Butterflies of Great Britain and Ireland, 9: 120-278, plates. Curwen, London.
Bretherton, R. F., B. Goater & R. I. Lorimer, 1983. Noctuidae. - In: J. Heath & A. M. Emmet (eds.), The Moths and Butterflies of Great Britain and Ireland, 10: 36-413, plates. Harley, Colchester.
Calle, J.A., 1983. Noctuidos Espanolas. - Pl. Ministerio de Agricultura, Pesca y Alimentacíon, Madrid. pp. 1-430.
Fibiger, M., 1990. Noctuinae 1. - Noctuidae Europaeae 1, Sorø, Denmark.
Fibiger, M., 1993. Noctuinae 2. - Noctuidae Europaeae 2, Sorø, Denmark.
Fibiger, M., 1997. Noctuinae 3. - Noctuidae Europaeae 3, Sorø, Denmark.
Fibiger, M., D. Nilsson & P. Svendsen, 1999. Contribution of the Noctuidae fauna of Cyprus, with description of four new species, six new subspecies, and reports of 55 species not previously found on Cyprus (Lepidoptera, Nocuidae). - Esperiana 7: 639-667.
Goater, B., L. Ronkay & M. Fibiger, 2003. Catocalinae & Plusiinae. - Noctuidae Europaeae 10, Sorø, Denmark.
Hacker, H., 1989. Die Noctuiden Griechenlands (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae). - Herbipoliana 2: 1-589.
Hacker, H., L. Ronkay & M. Hreblay, 2002. Hadeninae 1. - Noctuidae Europaeae 4, Sorø, Denmark.
Hacker, H. & W. Schmidt, 1996. Fauna und Biogeographie der Noctuidae des makaronesischen Archipels (Lepidoptera). - Esperiana 4: 167-221.
Kitching, I. J. & Rawlins, J. E., 1999. The Noctuoidea. - In: Kristensen, N.P. (ed.), Lepidoptera, Moths and Butterflies, 1: Evolution, Systematics, and Biogeography. Handbuch der Zoologie 4 (35): 355-401. Walter de Gruyter. Berlin, New York.
Nupponen, K., & M. Fibiger, 2002. Contribution to the knowledge of the fauna of Bombyces, Sphinges and Noctuidae of the Southern Ural mountains, with description of a new Dichagyris (Lepidoptera: Lasiocampidae, Endromidae, Noctuidae, Pantheidae, Lymantridae, Nolidae, Arctiidae). - Phegea 30 (4): 121-185.
Rakosy, L., 1996. Die Noctuiden Rumäniens (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae). - Stapfia 46: 1-648.
Ronkay, L., J. L. Yela, M. Hreblay & M. Ahola, 2001. Hadeninae 2. - Noctuidae Europaeae 5, Sorø, Denmark.
Ronkay, G. & L. Ronkay, 1994. Cucullinae 1. - Noctuidae Europaeae 6, Sorø, Denmark
Ronkay, G. & L. Ronkay, 1995. Cucullinae 2. - Noctuidae Europaeae 7, Sorø, Denmark
Skou, P., 1991. Nordens Ugler. - Danmarks Dyreliv 5: 1-565.

 

Nolidae
Michael Fibiger & Bjarne Skule

The Nolidae is a large family of typically small Lepidoptera with about with about 1,400 described species in 308 genera (Kitching & Rawlins, 1999). The real number of species is probably close to 6,000. It is distributed World wide, but represented in Europe with only 36 species. In this diverse, mainly tropical family many colourful species are found.
The entire family is associated by the unique character of having a boat-shaped cocoon made by the caterpillar at pupation. The subfamily Nolinae is represented by approximately 2000 species World wide. The members of this subfamily are rather easily recognised superficially by the small size, the straight, tapering labial palps, males with strongly bipectinated antennae and the blackish/greyish/whitish forewing ground colour. Some Nolids (i.e. the subfamily Nolinae) have earlier been placed in various families within the Lepidopteran families. In much literature only a few of the Nolids are treated, but during recent years faunistic literature also giving details on the identification of species of one or more of the Nolid subfamilies belonging to the European fauna have been published. Examples on parts of Europe which are treated in books are: The Nordic countries (Finland, Sweden, Norway and Denmark) by Skou (1991); Greece by Hacker (1989); Bulgaria by Beshkov (2000); Romania by Rakosy (1996); Spain by Calle (1983); Great Britain and Ireland by Revell (1979); the Macaronesian Islands by Hacker & Schmidt (1996); Cyprus by Fibiger et al. (1999); Ural Mountains by Nuppunen & Fibiger (2002); the larvae of the Nolidae are described by Beck (1999; 2000); and the Nolidae of the Westpalaearctic region by de Freina & Witt (1993).

References
Beck, H., 1999 and 2000. Die Larven der Europäischen Noctuidae. - Herbipolitana 5, 1: 447 pp.; 2: 859 pp.; 3: 336 pp.; 4: 512 pp..
Berio, E., 1991. Lepidoptera. Noctuidae 2, Sezione Quadrifide. - Fauna d'Italia, 26. Edizioni Calderina. 708 pp. + 16 pl. Bologna.
Calle, J.A., 1983. Noctuidos Espanolas. - Pl. Ministerio de Agricultura, Pesca y Alimentacíon, Madrid. pp. 1-430.
Fibiger, M., D. Nilsson & P. Svendsen, 1999. Contribution of the Noctuidae fauna of Cyprus, with description of four new species, six new subspecies, and reports of 55 species not previously found on Cyprus (Lepidoptera, Nocuidae). - Esperiana 7: 639-667.
Freina, J. J. de & Witt, T. J., 1987. Die Bombyces und Sphinges der Westpalaearktis (Insecta, Lepidoptera), 1. - Forschung & Wissenschaft, München.
Hacker, H., 1989. Die Noctuiden Griechenlands (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae). - Herbipoliana 2: 1-589.
Hacker, H. & W. Schmidt, 1996. Fauna und Biogeographie der Noctuidae des makaronesischen Archipels (Lepidoptera). - Esperiana 4: 167-221.
Kitching, I. J. & Rawlins, J. E., 1999. The Noctuoidea. - In: Kristensen, N.P. (ed.), Lepidoptera, Moths and Butterflies, 1: Evolution, Systematics, and Biogeography. Handbuch der Zoologie 4 (35): 355-401. Walter de Gruyter. Berlin, New York.
Nupponen, K., & M. Fibiger, 2002. Contribution to the knowledge of the fauna of Bombyces, Sphinges and Noctuidae of the Southern Ural mountains, with description of a new Dichagyris (Lepidoptera: Lasiocampidae, Endromidae, Noctuidae, Pantheidae, Lymantridae, Nolidae, Arctiidae). - Phegea 30 (4): 121-185.
Rakosy, L., 1996. Die Noctuiden Rumäniens (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae). - Stapfia 46: 1-648.
Revell, R. J., 1979. Nolidae. - In: J. Heath & A. M. Emmet (eds.), The Moths and Butterflies of Great Britain and Ireland, 9: 112-120, plates.
Skou, P., 1991. Nordens Ugler. - Danmarks Dyreliv 5: 1-565.

 

Arctiidae
Lukasz Przybylowicz

The Arctiidae (known as woolly-bears or tiger moths) is a world-wide family of some 11,000 species most of which are restricted to the tropics. The Palaearctic fauna is represented by about 200 species, while in Europe (in the sense of FaEu project) the number decreases to 102 species belonging to three subfamilies: Lithosiinae, Syntominae and Arctiinae. Although most of the species are large, colourful and often collected the taxonomic position of some genera (Eilema, Setina, Apaida, Coscinia) mainly from the subfamily Lithosiinae is still not clear.
The taxonomy is generally based on de Freina & Witt (1990), while the distribution is based on the country checklists except for former Yugoslavia and Russia regions where the faunistic papers in different periodicals where checked.
Most of the species are figured in colour in de Freina & Witt (1990), the North and Central European species are worked treated by Fajcik (2003). Bionomical information of the species recorded from the Iberian Peninsula is provided by Perez De-Gregorio et al. (2001). The morphological and distributional data on Eastern European Arctiinae (not Arctiidae) as well as colour figures of all species were provided by Murzin (2003).

References
Freina, J. J. de & Witt, T. J., 1987. Die Bombyces und Sphinges der Westpalaearktis (Insecta, Lepidoptera), 1. - Forschung & Wissenschaft, München, 708 pp.
Fajcik J., 2003. Motýle strednej a severnej Európy . Bratislava, 172 pp.
Murzin V., 2003. The Tiger Moths of the former Soviet Union (Insecta: Lepidoptera: Arctiidae). - Pensoft, Sofia-Moscow, 243 pp.
Perez De-Gregorio J. J., Munoz J. & Rondos M., 2001. Atlas fotografico de los lepidopteros macroheteroceros ibero-baleares, 2. - Argania Editio, Barcelona, 210 pp.

Table 1. Exotic, imported species of Arctiidae, reported from Europe, but not listed in main database.

Antichloris eriphia (Fabricius, 1776)

imported from time to time with bananas from America to different West European countries

Antichloris viridis Druce, 1884

imported from time to time with bananas from America to different West and North European countries

Automolis flavivena (Hampson, 1901)

a specimen of this African species was taken once in the Netherlands

Ecpantheria icasia ( Cramer, 1777)

the specimens were accidentally imported from America to the Netherlands

Estigmene acrea (Drury, 1773)

the specimens were accidentally imported from America to Great Britain

Euchaetes egle (Drury, 1773)

North American species, reported once from Hungary

Euchromia formosa (Guerin, 1843)

a specimen of this African species was taken once in the Netherlands

Euchromia lethe (Fabricius, 1775)

imported from time to time with bananas from Africa to different West European countries

Halisidota moeschleri Rothschild, 1909

this species was recorded from Great Britain

Hypercompe scribonia (Stoll, 1790)

the specimens were accidentally imported from America to Great Britain

Pyrrharctia Isabella (Smith, 1797)

the specimens were accidentally imported from America to Great Britain and Spain

Spilosoma virginicum (Fabricius, 1798)

this Nearctic species was observed for some years in Budapest in Hungary; no recent data

Utetheisa bella (Linnaeus, 1758)

a specimen of this American species was taken once in Great Britain

Back to previous page

 

 

© Copyright Fauna Europaea 2000 - 2014

Fauna Europaea was supported by the European Commission under the Fifth Framework Programme
and contributed to the Support for Research Infrastructures work programme with Thematic Priority Biodiversity.


Fauna Europaea is powered by MfN